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Author Levin, M.F.; Liebermann, D.G.; Parmet, Y.; Berman, S.
Title Compensatory Versus Noncompensatory Shoulder Movements Used for Reaching in Stroke Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair Abbreviated Journal Neurorehabil Neural Repair
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) adaptation; arm movement; compensation; kinematics; recovery; rehabilitation
Abstract BACKGROUND: The extent to which the upper-limb flexor synergy constrains or compensates for arm motor impairment during reaching is controversial. This synergy can be quantified with a minimal marker set describing movements of the arm-plane. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether and how (a) upper-limb flexor synergy in patients with chronic stroke contributes to reaching movements to different arm workspace locations and (b) reaching deficits can be characterized by arm-plane motion. METHODS: Sixteen post-stroke and 8 healthy control subjects made unrestrained reaching movements to targets located in ipsilateral, central, and contralateral arm workspaces. Arm-plane, arm, and trunk motion, and their temporal and spatial linkages were analyzed. RESULTS: Individuals with moderate/severe stroke used greater arm-plane movement and compensatory trunk movement compared to those with mild stroke and control subjects. Arm-plane and trunk movements were more temporally coupled in stroke compared with controls. Reaching accuracy was related to different segment and joint combinations for each target and group: arm-plane movement in controls and mild stroke subjects, and trunk and elbow movements in moderate/severe stroke subjects. Arm-plane movement increased with time since stroke and when combined with trunk rotation, discriminated between different subject groups for reaching the central and contralateral targets. Trunk movement and arm-plane angle during target reaches predicted the subject group. CONCLUSIONS: The upper-limb flexor synergy was used adaptively for reaching accuracy by patients with mild, but not moderate/severe stroke. The flexor synergy, as parameterized by the amount of arm-plane motion, can be used by clinicians to identify levels of motor recovery in patients with stroke.
Address
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1545-9683 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26510934 Approved no
Call Number Serial 79
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Biess, A.; Friedman, J.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flash, T.
Title Intrinsic joint kinematic planning. I: reassessing the Listing's law constraint in the control of three-dimensional arm movements Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 171 Issue 2 Pages 139-154
Keywords (up) Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; *Arm; Biomechanics; Eye Movements/*physiology; Humans; Joints/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; *Musculoskeletal System; Orientation/*physiology; Posture
Abstract This study tested the validity of the assumption that intrinsic kinematic constraints, such as Listing's law, can account for the geometric features of three-dimensional arm movements. In principle, if the arm joints follow a Listing's constraint, the hand paths may be predicted. Four individuals performed 'extended arm', 'radial', 'frontal plane', and 'random mixed' movements to visual targets to test Listing's law assumption. Three-dimensional rotation vectors of the upper arm and forearm were calculated from three-dimensional marker data. Data fitting techniques were used to test Donders' and Listing's laws. The coefficient values obtained from fitting rotation vectors to the surfaces described by a second-order equation were analyzed. The results showed that the coefficients that represent curvature and twist of the surfaces were often not significantly different from zero, particularly not during randomly mixed and extended arm movements. These coefficients for forearm rotations were larger compared to those for the upper arm segment rotations. The mean thickness of the rotation surfaces ranged between approximately 1.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees for the rotation vectors of the upper arm segment and approximately 2.6 degrees and 7.5 degrees for those of the forearm. During frontal plane movements, forearm rotations showed large twist scores while upper arm segment rotations showed large curvatures, although the thickness of the surfaces remained low. The curvatures, but not the thicknesses of the surfaces, were larger for large versus small amplitude radial movements. In conclusion, when examining the surfaces obtained for the different movement types, the rotation vectors may lie within manifolds that are anywhere between curved or twisted manifolds. However, a two-dimensional thick surface may roughly represent a global arm constraint. Our findings suggest that Listing's law is implemented for some types of arm movement, such as pointing to targets with the extended arm and during radial reaching movements.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16341526 Approved no
Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 18
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Author Roijezon, U.; Djupsjobacka, M.; Bjorklund, M.; Hager-Ross, C.; Grip, H.; Liebermann, D.G.
Title Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders Abbreviated Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord
Volume 11 Issue Pages 222
Keywords (up) Adult; Aged; Biomechanics/*physiology; Cervical Vertebrae/*physiopathology; Chronic Disease; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Head Movements/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Neck Pain/*diagnosis/*etiology/physiopathology; Physical Examination/methods; Reproducibility of Results; Rotation/*adverse effects; Time Factors; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. METHODS: Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. RESULTS: Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 +/- 88 degrees /s and CON: 348 +/- 92 degrees /s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. CONCLUSIONS: Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between groups calls for caution in the interpretation of individual assessments.
Address Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gavle, Sweden. ulrik.roijezon@ltu.se
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ISSN 1471-2474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20875135 Approved no
Call Number Serial 31
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Goodman, D.
Title Pre-landing muscle timing and post-landing effects of falling with continuous vision and in blindfold conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol
Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 212-227
Keywords (up) Adult; Analysis of Variance; Biomechanics; *Blindness; *Electromyography; Humans; Joints/physiology; Lower Extremity/physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Orientation; *Vision, Ocular
Abstract The present study examined the effect of continuous vision and its occlusion in timing of pre-landing actions during free falls. When vision is occluded, muscle activation is hypothesized to start relative to onset of the fall. However, when continuous vision is available onset of action is hypothesized to be relative to the moment of touchdown. Six subjects performed 6 randomized sets of 6 trials after becoming familiar with the task. The 36 trials were divided in 2 visual conditions (vision and blindfold) and 3 heights of fall (15, 45 and 75 cm). EMG activity was recorded from the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles during the falls. The latency of onset (L(o)) and the lapse from EMG onset to touchdown (T(c)) were obtained from these muscles. Vertical forces were recorded to assess the effects of pre-landing activity on the impacts at collision with and without continuous vision. Peak amplitude (F(max)), time to peak (T(max)) and peak impulse normalized to momentum (I(norm)) were used as outcome measures. Within flight time ranges of approximately 50-400 ms, the results showed that L(o) and T(c) follow a similar linear trend whether continuous vision was available or occluded. However, the variability of T(c) for each of the muscles was larger in the vision occluded condition. Analyses of variance showed that the rectus femoris muscle started consistently earlier in no vision trials. Finally, impact forces were not different in vision or blindfold conditions, and thus, they were not affected by minor differences in the timing of muscles prior to landing. Thus, it appears that knowing the surroundings before falling may help to reduce the need for a continuous visual input. The relevance of such input cannot be ruled out for falls from high landing heights, but cognitive factors (e.g., attention to specific cues and anticipation of a fall) may play a dominant role in timing actions during short duration falls encountered daily.
Address Physical Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il <dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il>
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16600637 Approved no
Call Number Serial 37
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Goodman, D.
Title Effects of visual guidance on the reduction of impacts during landings Type Journal Article
Year 1991 Publication Ergonomics Abbreviated Journal Ergonomics
Volume 34 Issue 11 Pages 1399-1406
Keywords (up) Adult; Analysis of Variance; Biomechanics; *Cues; Humans; Male; Motor Activity/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
Abstract While a common view is that vision is essential to motor performance, some recent studies have shown that continuous visual guidance may not always be required within certain time constraints. This study investigated a landing-related task (self-released falls) to assess the extent to which visual information enhances the ability to reduce the impacts at touchdown. Six individuals performed six blocked trials from four height categories in semi-counterbalanced order (5-10, 20-25, 60-65, and 90-95 cm) in vision and no-vision conditions randomly assigned. A series of two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were carried out separately on each dependent variable collapsed over six trials. The results indicated that vision during the flight did not produce softer landings. Indeed, in analysing the first peak (PFP) a main effect for visual condition was revealed in that the mean amplitude was slightly higher when vision was available (F(1,5) = 6.57; p less than 0.05), thus implicating higher forces at impact. The results obtained when the time to the first peak (TFP) was applied showed no significant differences between conditions (F(1,5) less than 1). As expected, in all cases, the analyses yielded significant main effects for the height categories factor. It appears that during self-initiated falls in which the environmental cues are known before the event, visual guidance is not necessary in order to adopt a softer landing strategy.
Address Research Department, Wingate Institute, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0014-0139 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:1800107 Approved no
Call Number Serial 55
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