|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Melzer, I.; Krasovsky, T.; Oddsson, L.I.E.; Liebermann, D.G.
Title (down) Age-related differences in lower-limb force-time relation during the push-off in rapid voluntary stepping Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) Abbreviated Journal Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
Volume 25 Issue 10 Pages 989-994
Keywords Accidental Falls/prevention & control; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/physiology; *Biomechanics; Female; Gait/*physiology; Humans; Male; *Postural Balance; Walking/*physiology
Abstract BACKGROUND: This study investigated the force-time relationship during the push-off stage of a rapid voluntary step in young and older healthy adults, to study the assumption that when balance is lost a quick step may preserve stability. The ability to achieve peak propulsive force within a short time is critical for the performance of such a quick powerful step. We hypothesized that older adults would achieve peak force and power in significantly longer times compared to young people, particularly during the push-off preparatory phase. METHODS: Fifteen young and 15 older volunteers performed rapid forward steps while standing on a force platform. Absolute anteroposterior and body weight normalized vertical forces during the push-off in the preparation and swing phases were used to determine time to peak and peak force, and step power. Two-way analyses of variance ('Group' [young-older] by 'Phase' [preparation-swing]) were used to assess our hypothesis (P </= 0.05). FINDINGS: Older people exerted lower peak forces (anteroposterior and vertical) than young adults, but not necessarily lower peak power. More significantly, they showed a longer time to peak force, particularly in the vertical direction during the preparation phase. INTERPRETATIONS: Older adults generate propulsive forces slowly and reach lower magnitudes, mainly during step preparation. The time to achieve a peak force and power, rather than its actual magnitude, may account for failures in quickly performing a preventive action. Such delay may be associated with the inability to react and recruit muscles quickly. Thus, training elderly to step fast in response to relevant cues may be beneficial in the prevention of falls.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0268-0033 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20724044 Approved no
Call Number Serial 51
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liebermann, D.G.; Katz, L.; Hughes, M.D.; Bartlett, R.M.; McClements, J.; Franks, I.M.
Title (down) Advances in the application of information technology to sport performance Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Journal of Sports Sciences Abbreviated Journal J Sports Sci
Volume 20 Issue 10 Pages 755-769
Keywords *Biofeedback, Psychology; *Computer Simulation; Humans; Models, Biological; Physical Education and Training/*methods; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Sports Medicine/methods; *Task Performance and Analysis; Videotape Recording
Abstract This paper overviews the diverse information technologies that are used to provide athletes with relevant feedback. Examples taken from various sports are used to illustrate selected applications of technology-based feedback. Several feedback systems are discussed, including vision, audition and proprioception. Each technology described here is based on the assumption that feedback would eventually enhance skill acquisition and sport performance and, as such, its usefulness to athletes and coaches in training is critically evaluated.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0264-0414 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12363293 Approved no
Call Number Serial 40
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schweitzer, N.; Apter, Y.; Ben-David, J.; Liebermann, D.G.; Parush, A.
Title (down) A field study of braking reactions during driving II: Minimum driver braking times Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Ergonomics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue 9 Pages 1903-1910
Keywords
Abstract The minimum total braking time (i.e. the braking reaction time plus the accelerator-to-brake movement time) plays an important role in defining a minimum following gap (MFG). This study was designed to obtain a lower limit for this gap. Total braking times (TBT) of a group of 51 male and female young athletes were monitored during real driving conditions. Sudden braking applied by a leading private passenger vehicle initiated the trials. A within-subject design was used to study the effects of different factors on braking time. Individuals performed a series of semi-counterbalanced trials at two following distances (6 and 12 m), two speeds (60 and 80 km/h) and three expectancy stages (naïve driving, partial knowledge, and full knowledge of the forthcoming manoeuvre). A three-way repeated measures ANOVA showed no major effects of ‘speed’, but major effects of the ‘expectancy’ and the ‘distance’ factors. The experiment yielded a mean TBT of 0·678 s (SD = 0·144 s) for trials averaged over distances and speeds in the naïve condition only. The data emphasize the role played by pre-cues in the braking response prior to emergency stops. Both the level of awareness of the forthcoming manoeuvre and the distance between vehicles appear to determine the response time. The descriptive statistics presented may also provide the basis for an objective, acceptable and legally valid minimum time gap for prosecution of ‘careless’ drivers.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 58
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liebermann, D.G.; Ben-David, J.; Schweitzer, N.; Apter, Y.; Parush, A.
Title (down) A field study of braking reactions during driving I: Triggering and modulation Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Ergonomics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue 9 Pages 1894-1902
Keywords
Abstract The present experiment was carried out to explore the response of driving subjects to emergency braking. The field trial consisted of driving behind a leading vehicle while the following drivers' responses were recorded by telemetry. A group of 51 individuals performed a series of trials at two driving speeds (60 and 80km/h), two following distances (6 and 12 m), and two braking conditions (real and dummy braking). Not all of these subjects completed all conditions or the minimum number of trials. The dependent variables were the total braking time (TBT) and its subcomponents: braking reaction time (BRT), and accelerator-to-brake movement time (MT). These data were analysed in three separate three-way ANOVAs with repeated measures on all factors. The results showed that when subjects were not aware of the forthcoming braking, the distance and braking conditions had major effects on all dependent variables. At the shorter following distance drivers reacted and moved faster. Similarly, when the brakes were real compared with dummy (i.e. brake lights only) drivers reacted faster. In addition, drivers reacted to onset of brake lights in 83% of the cases when dummy braking was applied, compared with 97% when real brakes were applied. Speed of driving did not show any significant effects and did not appear to influence the cognitive or attentional set to anticipate an emergency manoeuvre. These findings suggest that changes in angular velocity during optic expansion of the leading vehicle may be used as a cue to modulate braking movement, while onset of brake lights alone may be enough to trigger a ‘ballistic’ preventive response.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 57
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Biess, A.; Liebermann, D.G.; Flash, T.
Title (down) A computational model for redundant human three-dimensional pointing movements: integration of independent spatial and temporal motor plans simplifies movement dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci
Volume 27 Issue 48 Pages 13045-13064
Keywords Analysis of Variance; Arm/physiology; Biomechanics; *Computer Simulation; Humans; *Models, Biological; Movement/*physiology; *Nonlinear Dynamics; Posture/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Space Perception/*physiology; Time Factors; Torque
Abstract Few computational models have addressed the spatiotemporal features of unconstrained three-dimensional (3D) arm motion. Empirical observations made on hand paths, speed profiles, and arm postures during point-to-point movements led to the assumption that hand path and arm posture are independent of movement speed, suggesting that the geometric and temporal properties of movements are decoupled. In this study, we present a computational model of 3D movements for an arm with four degrees of freedom based on the assumption that optimization principles are separately applied at the geometric and temporal levels of control. Geometric properties (path and posture) are defined in terms of geodesic paths with respect to the kinetic energy metric in the Riemannian configuration space. Accordingly, a geodesic path can be generated with less muscular effort than on any other, nongeodesic path, because the sum of all configuration-speed-dependent torques vanishes. The temporal properties of the movement (speed) are determined in task space by minimizing the squared jerk along the selected end-effector path. The integration of both planning levels into a single spatiotemporal representation simplifies the control of arm dynamics along geodesic paths and results in movements with near minimal torque change and minimal peak value of kinetic energy. Thus, the application of Riemannian geometry allows for a reconciliation of computational models previously proposed for the description of arm movements. We suggest that geodesics are an emergent property of the motor system through the exploration of dynamical space. Our data validated the predictions for joint trajectories, hand paths, final postures, speed profiles, and driving torques.
Address Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel. armin.biess@weizmann.ac.il
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18045899 Approved no
Call Number Serial 35
Permanent link to this record