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Author Frenkel-Toledoa, S.; Bentin, S.; Perry, A.; Liebermann, D. G.; Soroker, N.
Title (up) Mirror-neuron system recruitment by action observation: Effects of focal brain damage on mu suppression Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal
Volume 87 Issue Pages 127-137
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Abstract Mu suppression is the attenuation of EEG power in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz), recorded over the sensorimotor cortex during execution and observation of motor actions. Based on this dual characteristic it is thought to signalize activation of a human analogue of the mirror neuron system (MNS) found in macaque monkeys, though much uncertainty remains concerning its specificity and full significance. To further explore the hypothesized relationship between mu suppression and MNS activation, we investigated how it is affected by damage to cortical regions, including areas where the MNS is thought to reside. EEG was recorded in 33 first-event stroke patients during observation of video-clips showing reaching and grasping hand movements. We examined the modulation of EEG oscillations at central and occipital sites, and analyzed separately the lower (8-10 Hz) and higher (10-12 Hz) segments of the alpha/mu range. Suppression was determined relative to observation of a non-biological movement. Normalized lesion data were used to investigate how damage to regions of the fronto-parietal cortex affects the pattern of suppression. The magnitude of mu suppression during action observation was significantly reduced in the affected hemisphere compared to the unaffected hemisphere. Differences between the hemispheres were significant at central (sensorimotor) sites but not at occipital (visual) sites. Total hemispheric volume loss did not correlate with mu suppression. Suppression in the lower mu range in the unaffected hemisphere (C3) correlated with lesion extent within the right inferior parietal cortex. Our lesion study supports the role of mu suppression as a marker of MNS activation, as suggested by findings gathered in previous studies in normal subjects.
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Call Number Serial 71
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Raz, T.; Dickinson, J.
Title (up) On Intentional and Incidental Learning and Estimation of Temporal and Spatial Information Type Journal Article
Year 1988 Publication Journal of Human Movement Studies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue Pages 191-204
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Call Number Serial 54
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Author Levin, M.F.; Banina, M.C.; Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Berman, S.; Soroker, N.; Solomon, J.M.; Liebermann, D.G.
Title (up) Personalized upper limb training combined with anodal-tDCS for sensorimotor recovery in spastic hemiparesis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Trials Abbreviated Journal Trials
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 7
Keywords Neurorehabilitation; Spasticity; Spatial threshold; Stroke; tDCS
Abstract BACKGROUND: Recovery of voluntary movement is a main rehabilitation goal. Efforts to identify effective upper limb (UL) interventions after stroke have been unsatisfactory. This study includes personalized impairment-based UL reaching training in virtual reality (VR) combined with non-invasive brain stimulation to enhance motor learning. The approach is guided by limiting reaching training to the angular zone in which active control is preserved (“active control zone”) after identification of a “spasticity zone”. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) is used to facilitate activation of the affected hemisphere and enhance inter-hemispheric balance. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of personalized reaching training, with and without a-tDCS, to increase the range of active elbow control and improve UL function. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled trial will take place at four academic rehabilitation centers in Canada, India and Israel. The intervention involves 10 days of personalized VR reaching training with both groups receiving the same intensity of treatment. Participants with sub-acute stroke aged 25 to 80 years with elbow spasticity will be randomized to one of three groups: personalized training (reaching within individually determined active control zones) with a-tDCS (group 1) or sham-tDCS (group 2), or non-personalized training (reaching regardless of active control zones) with a-tDCS (group 3). A baseline assessment will be performed at randomization and two follow-up assessments will occur at the end of the intervention and at 1 month post intervention. Main outcomes are elbow-flexor spatial threshold and ratio of spasticity zone to full elbow-extension range. Secondary outcomes include the Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Streamlined Wolf Motor Function Test and UL kinematics during a standardized reach-to-grasp task. DISCUSSION: This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of personalized treatment on spasticity and UL motor ability and feasibility of using low-cost interventions in low-to-middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02725853 . Initially registered on 12 January 2016.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
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ISSN 1745-6215 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29301545 Approved no
Call Number Serial 87
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Krasovsky, T.; Berman, S.
Title (up) Planning maximally smooth hand movements constrained to nonplanar workspaces Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Journal of Motor Behavior Abbreviated Journal J Mot Behav
Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 516-531
Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Algorithms; Female; Hand/*physiology; Humans; *Intention; Kinesthesis/*physiology; Male; Models, Statistical; Movement/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Reference Values; Writing
Abstract The article characterizes hand paths and speed profiles for movements performed in a nonplanar, 2-dimensional workspace (a hemisphere of constant curvature). The authors assessed endpoint kinematics (i.e., paths and speeds) under the minimum-jerk model assumptions and calculated minimal amplitude paths (geodesics) and the corresponding speed profiles. The authors also calculated hand speeds using the 2/3 power law. They then compared modeled results with the empirical observations. In all, 10 participants moved their hands forward and backward from a common starting position toward 3 targets located within a hemispheric workspace of small or large curvature. Comparisons of modeled observed differences using 2-way RM-ANOVAs showed that movement direction had no clear influence on hand kinetics (p < .05). Workspace curvature affected the hand paths, which seldom followed geodesic lines. Constraining the paths to different curvatures did not affect the hand speed profiles. Minimum-jerk speed profiles closely matched the observations and were superior to those predicted by 2/3 power law (p < .001). The authors conclude that speed and path cannot be unambiguously linked under the minimum-jerk assumption when individuals move the hand in a nonplanar 2-dimensional workspace. In such a case, the hands do not follow geodesic paths, but they preserve the speed profile, regardless of the geometric features of the workspace.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, The Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il
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ISSN 0022-2895 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:18980905 Approved no
Call Number Serial 33
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Goodman, D.
Title (up) Pre-landing muscle timing and post-landing effects of falling with continuous vision and in blindfold conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol
Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 212-227
Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Biomechanics; *Blindness; *Electromyography; Humans; Joints/physiology; Lower Extremity/physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Orientation; *Vision, Ocular
Abstract The present study examined the effect of continuous vision and its occlusion in timing of pre-landing actions during free falls. When vision is occluded, muscle activation is hypothesized to start relative to onset of the fall. However, when continuous vision is available onset of action is hypothesized to be relative to the moment of touchdown. Six subjects performed 6 randomized sets of 6 trials after becoming familiar with the task. The 36 trials were divided in 2 visual conditions (vision and blindfold) and 3 heights of fall (15, 45 and 75 cm). EMG activity was recorded from the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles during the falls. The latency of onset (L(o)) and the lapse from EMG onset to touchdown (T(c)) were obtained from these muscles. Vertical forces were recorded to assess the effects of pre-landing activity on the impacts at collision with and without continuous vision. Peak amplitude (F(max)), time to peak (T(max)) and peak impulse normalized to momentum (I(norm)) were used as outcome measures. Within flight time ranges of approximately 50-400 ms, the results showed that L(o) and T(c) follow a similar linear trend whether continuous vision was available or occluded. However, the variability of T(c) for each of the muscles was larger in the vision occluded condition. Analyses of variance showed that the rectus femoris muscle started consistently earlier in no vision trials. Finally, impact forces were not different in vision or blindfold conditions, and thus, they were not affected by minor differences in the timing of muscles prior to landing. Thus, it appears that knowing the surroundings before falling may help to reduce the need for a continuous visual input. The relevance of such input cannot be ruled out for falls from high landing heights, but cognitive factors (e.g., attention to specific cues and anticipation of a fall) may play a dominant role in timing actions during short duration falls encountered daily.
Address Physical Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il <dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il>
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16600637 Approved no
Call Number Serial 37
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