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Author Shaklai, S.; Mimouni-Bloch, A.; Levin, M.; Friedman, J.
Title Development of finger force coordination in children Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 235 Issue (up) 12 Pages 37093720
Keywords
Abstract Coordination is often observed as body parts moving together. However, when producing force with multiple fingers, the optimal coordination is not to produce similar forces with each finger, but rather for each finger to correct mistakes of other fingers. In this study, we aim to determine whether and how this skill develops in children aged 4-12 years. We measured this sort of coordination using the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis (UCM). We recorded finger forces produced by 60 typically developing children aged between 4 and 12 years in a finger-pressing task. The children controlled the height of an object on a screen by the total amount of force they produced on force sensors. We found that the synergy index, a measure of the relationship between “good” and “bad” variance, increased linearly as a function of age. This improvement was achieved by a selective reduction in “bad” variance rather than an increase in “good” variance. We did not observe differences between males and females, and the synergy index was not able to predict outcomes of upper limb behavioral tests after controlling for age. As children develop between the ages of 4 and 12 years, their ability to produce negative covariation between their finger forces improves, likely related to their improved ability to perform dexterous tasks.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Shaklai2017 Serial 86
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Author Friedman, Jason; SKM, Varadhan; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.
Title The sources of two components of variance: an example of multifinger cyclic force production tasks at different frequencies Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 196 Issue (up) 2 Pages 263-277
Keywords
Abstract In a multifinger cyclic force production task, the finger force variance measured across trials can be decomposed into two components, one that affects the combined force output (“bad variance”) and one that does not (“good variance”). Previous studies have found similar time patterns of “bad variance” and force rate leading to an approximately linear relationship between them. Based on this finding and a recently developed model of multifinger force production, we expected the “bad variance” during cyclic force production to increase monotonically with the rate of force change, both within a cycle and across trials at different frequencies. Alternatively, “bad variance” could show a dependence on task frequency, not on actual force derivative values. Healthy subjects were required to produce cyclic force patterns to prescribed targets by pressing on unidimensional force sensors, at a frequency set by a metronome. The task was performed with only the index finger, and with all four fingers. In the task with all four fingers, the “good variance” increased approximately linearly with an increase in the force magnitude. The “bad variance” showed within-a-cycle modulation similar to that of the force rate. However, an increase in the frequency did not lead to an increase in the “bad variance” that could be expected based on the natural relationships between action frequency and the rate of force change modulation. The results have been interpreted in the framework of an earlier model of multifinger force production where “bad variance” is a result of variance of the timing parameter. The unexpected lack of modulation of the “bad variance” with frequency suggests a drop in variance of the timing parameter with increased frequency. This mechanism may serve to maintain a constant acceptable level of variance under different conditions.
Address Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19468721 Approved no
Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 15
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Biess, A.; Friedman, J.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flash, T.
Title Intrinsic joint kinematic planning. I: reassessing the Listing's law constraint in the control of three-dimensional arm movements Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 171 Issue (up) 2 Pages 139-154
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; *Arm; Biomechanics; Eye Movements/*physiology; Humans; Joints/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; *Musculoskeletal System; Orientation/*physiology; Posture
Abstract This study tested the validity of the assumption that intrinsic kinematic constraints, such as Listing's law, can account for the geometric features of three-dimensional arm movements. In principle, if the arm joints follow a Listing's constraint, the hand paths may be predicted. Four individuals performed 'extended arm', 'radial', 'frontal plane', and 'random mixed' movements to visual targets to test Listing's law assumption. Three-dimensional rotation vectors of the upper arm and forearm were calculated from three-dimensional marker data. Data fitting techniques were used to test Donders' and Listing's laws. The coefficient values obtained from fitting rotation vectors to the surfaces described by a second-order equation were analyzed. The results showed that the coefficients that represent curvature and twist of the surfaces were often not significantly different from zero, particularly not during randomly mixed and extended arm movements. These coefficients for forearm rotations were larger compared to those for the upper arm segment rotations. The mean thickness of the rotation surfaces ranged between approximately 1.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees for the rotation vectors of the upper arm segment and approximately 2.6 degrees and 7.5 degrees for those of the forearm. During frontal plane movements, forearm rotations showed large twist scores while upper arm segment rotations showed large curvatures, although the thickness of the surfaces remained low. The curvatures, but not the thicknesses of the surfaces, were larger for large versus small amplitude radial movements. In conclusion, when examining the surfaces obtained for the different movement types, the rotation vectors may lie within manifolds that are anywhere between curved or twisted manifolds. However, a two-dimensional thick surface may roughly represent a global arm constraint. Our findings suggest that Listing's law is implemented for some types of arm movement, such as pointing to targets with the extended arm and during radial reaching movements.
Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16341526 Approved no
Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 18
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Author Friedman, Jason; Flash, Tamar
Title Trajectory of the index finger during grasping Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 196 Issue (up) 4 Pages 497-509
Keywords
Abstract The trajectory of the index finger during grasping movements was compared to the trajectories predicted by three optimization-based models. The three models consisted of minimizing the integral of the weighted squared joint derivatives along the path (inertia-like cost), minimizing torque change, and minimizing angular jerk. Of the three models, it was observed that the path of the fingertip and the joint trajectories, were best described by the minimum angular jerk model. This model, which does not take into account the dynamics of the finger, performed equally well when the inertia of the finger was altered by adding a 20 g weight to the medial phalange. Thus, for the finger, it appears that trajectories are planned based primarily on kinematic considerations at a joint level.
Address Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, write.to.jason@gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19521692 Approved no
Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 17
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Author Noy, L.; Alon, U.; Friedman, J.
Title Corrective jitter motion shows similar individual frequencies for the arm and the finger Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res
Volume 233 Issue (up) 4 Pages 1307-1320
Keywords
Abstract A characteristic of visuomotor tracking of non-regular oscillating stimuli are high-frequency jittery corrective motions, oscillating around the tracked stimuli. However, the properties of these corrective jitter responses are not well understood. For example, does the jitter response show an idiosyncratic signature? What is the relationship between stimuli properties and jitter properties? Is the jitter response similar across effectors with different inertial properties? To answer these questions, we measured participants' jitter frequencies in two tracking tasks in the arm and the finger. Thirty participants tracked the same set of eleven non-regular oscillating stimuli, vertically moving on a screen, once with forward-backward arm movements (holding a tablet stylus) and once with upward-downward index finger movements (with a motion tracker attached). Participants' jitter frequencies and tracking errors varied systematically as a function of stimuli frequency and amplitude. Additionally, there were clear individual differences in average jitter frequencies between participants, ranging from 0.7 to 1.15 Hz, similar to values reported previously. A comparison of individual jitter frequencies in the two tasks showed a strong correlation between participants' jitter frequencies in the finger and the arm, despite the very different inertial properties of the two effectors. This result suggests that the corrective jitter response stems from common neural processes.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25630905 Approved no
Call Number Serial 76
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