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Liebermann, D. G., Buchman, A. S., & Franks, I. M. (2006). Enhancement of motor rehabilitation through the use of information technologies. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 21(1), 8–20.
Abstract: The recent development of information technologies has dramatically increased the tools available for facilitating motor rehabilitation. This review focuses on technologies which can be used to augment movement-related information both to patients as well as to their therapists. A brief outline of the motor system emphasizes the role of spinal motor neurons in the control of voluntary movement and rehabilitative efforts. Technologies which induce passive motion to stimulate spinal motor output as well as technologies that stimulate active voluntary movements are discussed. Finally, we review technologies and notational methods that can be used to quantify and assess the quality of movement for evaluating the efficacy of motor rehabilitation efforts. We conclude that stronger evidence is necessary to determine the applicability of the wide range of technologies now available to clinical rehabilitation efforts.
Keywords: Biotechnology/*methods; Humans; Medical Informatics/*methods; Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/*methods; Movement Disorders/*rehabilitation; Musculoskeletal Manipulations/methods; Rehabilitation/*methods; Robotics/*methods; Therapy, Computer-Assisted/*methods
Liebermann, D. G., & Hoffman, J. R. (2005). Timing of preparatory landing responses as a function of availability of optic flow information. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 15(1), 120–130.
Abstract: This study investigated temporal patterns of EMG activity during self-initiated falls with different optic flow information ('gaze directions'). Onsets of EMG during the flight phase were monitored from five experienced volunteers that completed 72 landings in three gaze directions (downward, mid-range and horizontal) and six heights of fall (10-130 cm). EMG recordings were obtained from the right gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles, and used to determine the latency of onset (L(o)) and the perceived time to contact (T(c)). Impacts at touchdown were also monitored using as estimates the major peak of the vertical ground reaction forces (F(max)) normalized to body mass, time to peak (T(max)), peak impulse (I(norm)) normalized to momentum, and rate of change of force (dF(max)/dt). Results showed that L(o) was longer as heights of fall increased, but remained within a narrow time-window at >50 cm landings. No significant differences in L(o) were observed when gaze direction was changed. The relationship between T(c) and flight time followed a linear trend regardless of gaze direction. Gaze direction did not significantly affect the landing impacts. In conclusion, availability of optic flow during landing does not play a major role in triggering the preparatory muscle actions in self-initiated falls. Once a structured landing plan has been acquired, the relevant muscles respond relative to the start of the fall.
Keywords: Adult; Cues; Electromyography; Humans; Male; Movement/physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Posture/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
|Liebermann, D. G., & Franks, I. M. (2004). The use of feedback-based technologies in skill acquisition. In M. Hughes, & I.M. Franks (Eds.), Notational analysis of Sport and Coaching Science. E & FN Spon Pub.|
|Flash, T., Richardson, M. E., Handzel, A. A., & Liebermann, D. G. (2003). Computational Models and Geometric Approaches in Arm Trajectory Control Studies. In M. L. Latash, & M. F. Levin (Eds.), Progress in Motor Control III: From Basic Science to Applications. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics.|
Liebermann, D. G., Katz, L., Hughes, M. D., Bartlett, R. M., McClements, J., & Franks, I. M. (2002). Advances in the application of information technology to sport performance. J Sports Sci, 20(10), 755–769.
Abstract: This paper overviews the diverse information technologies that are used to provide athletes with relevant feedback. Examples taken from various sports are used to illustrate selected applications of technology-based feedback. Several feedback systems are discussed, including vision, audition and proprioception. Each technology described here is based on the assumption that feedback would eventually enhance skill acquisition and sport performance and, as such, its usefulness to athletes and coaches in training is critically evaluated.
Keywords: *Biofeedback, Psychology; *Computer Simulation; Humans; Models, Biological; Physical Education and Training/*methods; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Sports Medicine/methods; *Task Performance and Analysis; Videotape Recording