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Schweitzer, N., Apter, Y., Ben-David, J., Liebermann, D. G., & Parush, A. (1995). A field study of braking reactions during driving II: Minimum driver braking times. Ergonomics, 38(9), 1903–1910.
Abstract: The minimum total braking time (i.e. the braking reaction time plus the accelerator-to-brake movement time) plays an important role in defining a minimum following gap (MFG). This study was designed to obtain a lower limit for this gap. Total braking times (TBT) of a group of 51 male and female young athletes were monitored during real driving conditions. Sudden braking applied by a leading private passenger vehicle initiated the trials. A within-subject design was used to study the effects of different factors on braking time. Individuals performed a series of semi-counterbalanced trials at two following distances (6 and 12 m), two speeds (60 and 80 km/h) and three expectancy stages (naïve driving, partial knowledge, and full knowledge of the forthcoming manoeuvre). A three-way repeated measures ANOVA showed no major effects of ‘speed’, but major effects of the ‘expectancy’ and the ‘distance’ factors. The experiment yielded a mean TBT of 0·678 s (SD = 0·144 s) for trials averaged over distances and speeds in the naïve condition only. The data emphasize the role played by pre-cues in the braking response prior to emergency stops. Both the level of awareness of the forthcoming manoeuvre and the distance between vehicles appear to determine the response time. The descriptive statistics presented may also provide the basis for an objective, acceptable and legally valid minimum time gap for prosecution of ‘careless’ drivers.
Issurin, V. B., Liebermann, D. G., & Tenenbaum, G. (1994). Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility (Vol. 12).
Abstract: In this study, we investigated a new method of training for maximal strength and flexibility, which included exertion with superimposed vibration (vibratory stimulation, VS) on target muscles. Twenty-eight male athletes were divided into three groups, and trained three times a week for 3 weeks in one of the following conditions: (A) conventional exercises for strength of the arms and VS stretching exercises for the legs; (B) VS strength exercises for the arms and conventional stretching exercises for the legs; (C) irrelevant training (control group). The vibration was applied at 44 Hz while its amplitude was 3 mm. The effect of training was evaluated by means of isotonic maximal force, heel-to-heel length in the two-leg split across, and flex-and-reach test for body flexion. The VS strength training yielded an average increase in isotonic maximal strength of 49.8%, compared with an average gain of 16% with conventional training, while no gain was observed for the control group. The VS flexibility training resulted in an average gain in the legs split of 14.5 cm compared with 4.1 cm for the conventional training and 2 cm for the control groups, respectively. The ANOVA revealed significant pre-post training effects and an interaction between pre-post training and 'treatment' effects (P < 0.001) for the isotonic maximal force and both flexibility tests. It was concluded that superimposed vibrations applied for short periods allow for increased gains in maximal strength and flexibility.
Keywords: Adult; Humans; Male; Muscle Contraction/physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; *Physical Education and Training; Vibration/*therapeutic use
|Goodman, D., & Liebermann, D. G. (1992). Time-to-contact as a determiner of action: vision and motor control. In D. Elliott, & J. Proteau (Eds.), Vision and Motor Control (pp. 335–349). Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier Pub. Co.|
Liebermann, D. G., & Goodman, D. (1991). Effects of visual guidance on the reduction of impacts during landings. Ergonomics, 34(11), 1399–1406.
Abstract: While a common view is that vision is essential to motor performance, some recent studies have shown that continuous visual guidance may not always be required within certain time constraints. This study investigated a landing-related task (self-released falls) to assess the extent to which visual information enhances the ability to reduce the impacts at touchdown. Six individuals performed six blocked trials from four height categories in semi-counterbalanced order (5-10, 20-25, 60-65, and 90-95 cm) in vision and no-vision conditions randomly assigned. A series of two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were carried out separately on each dependent variable collapsed over six trials. The results indicated that vision during the flight did not produce softer landings. Indeed, in analysing the first peak (PFP) a main effect for visual condition was revealed in that the mean amplitude was slightly higher when vision was available (F(1,5) = 6.57; p less than 0.05), thus implicating higher forces at impact. The results obtained when the time to the first peak (TFP) was applied showed no significant differences between conditions (F(1,5) less than 1). As expected, in all cases, the analyses yielded significant main effects for the height categories factor. It appears that during self-initiated falls in which the environmental cues are known before the event, visual guidance is not necessary in order to adopt a softer landing strategy.
Keywords: Adult; Analysis of Variance; Biomechanics; *Cues; Humans; Male; Motor Activity/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
|Liebermann, D. G., Raz, T., & Dickinson, J. (1988). On Intentional and Incidental Learning and Estimation of Temporal and Spatial Information. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 15, 191–204.|