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|Carmeli E., & Liebermann, D. G. (2007). The Function of the Aging Hand. In T. L. Kauffman, M. Moran, & J. Barr (Eds.), The Geriatric Rehabilitation Manual. NY: Elsevier.|
|Frenkel-Toledo, S., Levin, M. F., Berman, S., Liebermann, D. G., Baniña, M. C., Solomon, J. M., et al. (2022). Shared and distinct voxel-based lesion-symptom mappings for spasticity and impaired movement in the hemiparetic upper limb. Sci Rep, 12(1).|
Biess, A., Flash, T., & Liebermann, D. G. (2011). Riemannian geometric approach to human arm dynamics, movement optimization, and invariance. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 83(3 Pt 1), 031927.
Abstract: We present a generally covariant formulation of human arm dynamics and optimization principles in Riemannian configuration space. We extend the one-parameter family of mean-squared-derivative (MSD) cost functionals from Euclidean to Riemannian space, and we show that they are mathematically identical to the corresponding dynamic costs when formulated in a Riemannian space equipped with the kinetic energy metric. In particular, we derive the equivalence of the minimum-jerk and minimum-torque change models in this metric space. Solutions of the one-parameter family of MSD variational problems in Riemannian space are given by (reparameterized) geodesic paths, which correspond to movements with least muscular effort. Finally, movement invariants are derived from symmetries of the Riemannian manifold. We argue that the geometrical structure imposed on the arm's configuration space may provide insights into the emerging properties of the movements generated by the motor system.
Keywords: Arm/*physiology; Biomechanics; Computer Simulation; Humans; Kinetics; Male; Models, Biological; Models, Statistical; Models, Theoretical; *Movement; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Space Perception/*physiology; Torque
Davidowitz, I., Parmet, Y., Frenkel-Toledo, S., Banina, M. C., Soroker, N., Solomon, J. M., et al. (2019). Relationship Between Spasticity and Upper-Limb Movement Disorders in Individuals With Subacute Stroke Using Stochastic Spatiotemporal Modeling. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 33(2), 141–152.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Spasticity is common in patients with stroke, yet current quantification methods are insufficient for determining the relationship between spasticity and voluntary movement deficits. This is partly a result of the effects of spasticity on spatiotemporal characteristics of movement and the variability of voluntary movement. These can be captured by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of spasticity on upper-limb voluntary motion, as assessed by the bidirectional Kullback-Liebler divergence (BKLD) between motion GMMs. METHODS: A total of 16 individuals with subacute stroke and 13 healthy aged-equivalent controls reached to grasp 4 targets (near-center, contralateral, far-center, and ipsilateral). Two-dimensional GMMs (angle and time) were estimated for elbow extension motion. BKLD was computed for each individual and target, within the control group and between the control and stroke groups. Movement time, final elbow angle, average elbow velocity, and velocity smoothness were computed. RESULTS: Between-group BKLDs were much larger than within control-group BKLDs. Between-group BKLDs for the near-center target were lower than those for the far-center and contralateral targets, but similar to that for the ipsilateral target. For those with stroke, the final angle was lower for the near-center target, and the average velocity was higher. Velocity smoothness was lower for the near-center than for the ipsilateral target. Elbow flexor and extensor passive muscle resistance (Modified Ashworth Scale) strongly explained BKLD values. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the view that individuals with poststroke spasticity have a velocity-dependent reduction in active elbow joint range and that BKLD can be used as an objective measure of the effects of spasticity on reaching kinematics.
Keywords: Gaussian mixture model; Kullback-Liebler divergence; spasticity; stroke; upper-limb kinematics
Liebermann, D. G., & Goodman, D. (2007). Pre-landing muscle timing and post-landing effects of falling with continuous vision and in blindfold conditions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 17(2), 212–227.
Abstract: The present study examined the effect of continuous vision and its occlusion in timing of pre-landing actions during free falls. When vision is occluded, muscle activation is hypothesized to start relative to onset of the fall. However, when continuous vision is available onset of action is hypothesized to be relative to the moment of touchdown. Six subjects performed 6 randomized sets of 6 trials after becoming familiar with the task. The 36 trials were divided in 2 visual conditions (vision and blindfold) and 3 heights of fall (15, 45 and 75 cm). EMG activity was recorded from the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles during the falls. The latency of onset (L(o)) and the lapse from EMG onset to touchdown (T(c)) were obtained from these muscles. Vertical forces were recorded to assess the effects of pre-landing activity on the impacts at collision with and without continuous vision. Peak amplitude (F(max)), time to peak (T(max)) and peak impulse normalized to momentum (I(norm)) were used as outcome measures. Within flight time ranges of approximately 50-400 ms, the results showed that L(o) and T(c) follow a similar linear trend whether continuous vision was available or occluded. However, the variability of T(c) for each of the muscles was larger in the vision occluded condition. Analyses of variance showed that the rectus femoris muscle started consistently earlier in no vision trials. Finally, impact forces were not different in vision or blindfold conditions, and thus, they were not affected by minor differences in the timing of muscles prior to landing. Thus, it appears that knowing the surroundings before falling may help to reduce the need for a continuous visual input. The relevance of such input cannot be ruled out for falls from high landing heights, but cognitive factors (e.g., attention to specific cues and anticipation of a fall) may play a dominant role in timing actions during short duration falls encountered daily.
Keywords: Adult; Analysis of Variance; Biomechanics; *Blindness; *Electromyography; Humans; Joints/physiology; Lower Extremity/physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Orientation; *Vision, Ocular