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Dario G. Liebermann, Murray E. Maitland, & Larry Katz. (2002). Lower-limb extension power: How well does it predict short distance speed skating performance? Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 10(2), 87–95.
Abstract: This study was aimed to explore the relationship between lower limb extension power measured by isokinetic knee extensions (IK) and vertical jumps performed on a force plate (VJ) and speed skating (SS) sprint power measured by a laser device.
Methods: Twenty elite short- and long-track speed skaters performed 100 m sprints followed by VJ and IK trials. Power-time curves were calculated off-line. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine the degree of association between the variables.
Results: SS sprint power correlates strongly with VJ power (r=0.870; p<0.001) while IK power showed a weaker but significant correlation to both (r=0.707 and r=0.706, respectively; p<0.01). As expected, SS times at 15 m and 100 m were inversely associated with SS sprint power (r=-0.818 and r=-0.909; p<0.001) and VJ power (r=-0.730 and r=-0.763; p<0.001), and to a lesser degree with IK power (r=-0.602; r=-0.618; p<0.01).
Conclusion: The analyses differentiate between methods of estimating power in speed skaters, and show a strong relationship between initial SS performance and muscular power. Given that 100 m split times strongly relate to final 500 m results (r=0.972; p<0.001, N=332), it is reasonable to believe that an initial power and a stable peak speed before the first curve may lead to achieving the winning edge in short SS events. A finding of particular interest is that isokinetic power results are correlated significantly with the practical outcomes of the performance in spite of the high specificity of the isokinetic testing method.
Dario G. Liebermann, & Larry Katz. (2003). On the assessment of lower-limb power capability. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 11(2), 87–94.
Abstract: Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of different methods used to estimate lower-limb muscular power capability based on mechanical variables. For this purpose, vertical jumping was compared with isokinetic knee extensions and with power tests used by practitioners.
Methods: Four groups of subjects (N = 106) were tested in different conditions. Group-I performed countermovement vertical jumps (CMJ) on a force plate followed by left and right knee extensions on an isokinetic device at 120, 180 and 240 deg�s-1. Group-II performed CMJ trials followed by 20-m sprints, hand-reach jumps and 1RM leg-press testing. Group-III carried out squat jumps (SJ) in addition to CMJ trials. Finally, Group-IV performed the CMJ test and was retested twice after a short inter-session interval (1–4 days) and after a long one (4.5–5 months). The Pearson correlation was used to assess the validity and reliability of CMJ (p ≤ 0.01, **).
Results: Mean peak power during CMJ was correlated with sprint time (r = -0.882) and leg-press 1 RM (r = 0.797), but less with peak hand-reach height (r = 0.695; p ≤ 0.05). Isokinetic knee extension power showed also a significant correlation with CMJ power, but its strength depended on the angular velocity (Isok-120 r = 0.702; Isok-180 r = 0.737; Isok-240 r = 0.599). Test-retests showed a strong correlation after a short interval (r = 0.915) and after a long one (r = 0.890). Using the SJ technique did not have any effect on reliability (r = 0.914).
Conclusions: CMJ matches other methods used for testing lower-limb power capability. It is highly reliable and it allows a valid assessment of muscular power. Since CMJ is also simple and accurate to perform, it is the recommended method.