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Author Portnoy, S.; Rosenberg, L.; Alazraki, T.; Elyakim, E.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Differences in Muscle Activity Patterns and Graphical Product Quality in Children Copying and Tracing Activities on Horizontal or Vertical Surfaces Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 540�547  
  Keywords Motor equivalence; Electromyography; Tablet; Occupational Therapy; Muscle fatigue; Motor control  
  Abstract The observation that a given task, e.g. producing a signature, looks similar when created by different motor commands and different muscles groups is known as motor equivalence. Relatively little data exists regarding the characteristics of motor equivalence in children. In this study, we compared the level of performance when performing a tracing task and copying figures in two common postures: while sitting at a desk and while standing in front of a wall, among preschool children. In addition, we compared muscle activity patterns in both postures. Specifically, we compared the movements of 35 five- to six-year old children, recording the same movements of copying figures and path tracing on an electronic tablet in both a horizontal orientation, while sitting, and a vertical orientation, while standing. Different muscle activation patterns were observed between the postures, however no significant difference in the performance level was found, providing evidence of motor equivalence at this young age. The study presents a straightforward method of assessing motor equivalence that can be extended to other stages of development as well as motor disorders.  
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  ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 77  
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Author Awasthi, B.; Williams, M.A.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Examining the role of red background in magnocellular contribution to face perception Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal (up) PeerJ  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages e1617  
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  Abstract This study examines the role of the magnocellular system in the early stages of face perception, in particular sex categorization. Utilizing the specific property of magnocellular suppression in red light, we investigated visually guided reaching to low and high spatial frequency hybrid faces against red and grey backgrounds. The arm movement curvature measure shows that reduced response of the magnocellular pathway interferes with the low spatial frequency component of face perception. This finding provides behavioral evidence for magnocellular contribution to non-emotional aspect of face perception.  
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  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 81  
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Author Friedman, J.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Kinematic Strategies Underlying Improvement in the Acquisition of a Sequential Finger Task with Self-Generated vs. Cued Repetition Training Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS one Abbreviated Journal (up) PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 12 Pages e52063  
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  Abstract Many motor skills, such as typing, consist of articulating simple movements into novel sequences that are executed faster and smoother with practice. Dynamics of re-organization of these movement sequences with multi-session training and its dependence on the amount of self-regulation of pace during training is not yet fully understood. In this study, participants practiced a sequence of key presses. Training sessions consisted of either externally (Cued) or self-initiated (Uncued) training. Long-term improvements in performance speed were mainly due to reducing gaps between finger movements in both groups, but Uncued training induced higher gains. The underlying kinematic strategies producing these changes and the representation of the trained sequence differed significantly across subjects, although net gains in speed were similar. The differences in long-term memory due to the type of training and the variation in strategies between subjects, suggest that the different neural mechanisms may subserve the improvements observed in overall performance.  
  Address Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia ; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23272210 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 41  
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Author Salzer, Y.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Reaching trajectories unravel modality-dependent temporal dynamics of the automatic process in the Simon task: a model-based approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Psychological Research Abbreviated Journal (up) Psychol Res  
  Volume 84 Issue 6 Pages 1700-1713  
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  Abstract The Simon effect represents a phenomenon in which the location of the stimuli affects the speed and accuracy of the response, despite being irrelevant for the task demands. This is believed to be due to an automatic activation of a response corresponding to the location of the stimuli, which conflicts with the controlled decision process based on relevant stimuli features. Previously, differences in the nature of the Simon effect (i.e., the pattern of change of the effect across the distribution of response times) between visual and somatosensory stimuli were reported. We hypothesize that the temporal dynamics of visual and somatosensory automatic and controlled processes vary, thus driving the reported behavioral differences. While most studies have used response times to study the underlying mechanisms involved, in this study we had participants reach out to touch the targets and recorded their arm movements using a motion capture system. Importantly, the participants started their movements before a final decision was made. In this way, we could analyze the movements to gain insights into the competition between the automatic and controlled processes. We used this technique to describe the results in terms of a model assuming automatic activation due to location-based evidence, followed by inhibition. We found that for the somatosensory Simon effect, the decay of the automatic process is significantly slower than for the visual Simon effect, suggesting quantitative differences in this automatic process between the visual and somatosensory modalities.  
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  ISSN 0340-0727 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:30980236 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author Friedman, J.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Observation of an expert model induces a skilled movement coordination pattern in a single session of intermittent practice Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal (up) Sci Rep  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 4609  
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  Abstract We tested how observation of a skilled pattern of planar movements can assist in the learning of a new motor skill, which otherwise requires rigorous long-term practice to achieve fast and smooth performance. Sixty participants performed a sequence of planar hand movements on pre-test, acquisition, post-test and 24 h post-training blocks, under 1 of 4 conditions: an observation group (OG), a slowed observation group (SOG), a random motion control group (RMCG) and a double physical training control group (DPTCG). The OG and SOG observed an expert model's right hand performing the study task intermittently throughout acquisition, RMCG observed random dots movement instead of a model. Participants in the DPTCG received extra physical practice trials instead of the visually observed trials. Kinematic analysis revealed that only in conditions with observation of an expert model there was an instant robust improvement in motor planning of the task. This step-wise improvement was not only persistent in post-training retests but was also apparently implicit and subject to further incremental improvements in movement strategy over the period of 24 hours. The rapid change in motor strategy was accompanied by a transient within-session increase in spatial error for the observation groups, but this went away by 24 h post-training. We suggest that observation of hand movements of an expert model coaligned with self-produced movements during training can significantly condense the time-course of ecologically relevant drawing/writing skill mastery.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30872661 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 94  
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