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Author Friedman, J.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Offline Optimization of the Relative Timing of Movements in a Sequence Is Blocked by Retroactive Behavioral Interference Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Hum. Neurosci.  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 623  
  Keywords (down) learning; interference; consolidation; finger movements; kinematics  
  Abstract Acquisition of motor skills often involves the concatenation of single movements into sequences. Along the course of learning, sequential performance becomes progressively faster and smoother, presumably by optimization of both motor planning and motor execution. Following its encoding during training, “how-to” memory undergoes consolidation, reflecting transformations in performance and its neurobiological underpinnings over time. This offline post-training memory process is characterized by two phenomena: reduced sensitivity to interference and the emergence of delayed, typically overnight, gains in performance. Here, using a training protocol that effectively induces motor sequence memory consolidation, we tested temporal and kinematic parameters of performance within (online) and between (offline) sessions, and their sensitivity to retroactive interference. One group learned a given finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), and showed robust delayed (consolidation) gains in the number of correct sequences performed at 24 h. A second group learned an additional (interference) FOS shortly after the first and did not show delayed gains. Reduction of touch times and inter-movement intervals significantly contributed to the overall offline improvement of performance overnight. However, only the offline inter-movement interval shortening was selectively blocked by the interference experience. Velocity and amplitude, comprising movement time, also significantly changed across the consolidation period but were interference-insensitive. Moreover, they paradoxically canceled out each other. Current results suggest that shifts in the representation of the trained sequence are subserved by multiple processes: from distinct changes in kinematic characteristics of individual finger movements to high-level, temporal reorganization of the movements as a unit. Each of these processes has a distinct time course and a specific susceptibility to retroactive interference. This multiple-component view may bridge the gap in understanding the link between the behavioral changes, which define online and offline learning, and the biological mechanisms that support those changes.  
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  ISSN 1662-5161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 83  
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Author Park, J.; Pazin, N.; Friedman, J.; Zatsiorsky, V.M.; Latash, M.L. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Mechanical properties of the human hand digits: Age-related differences Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Clinical Biomechanics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 129–137  
  Keywords (down) hand; aging; friction; apparent stiffness; damping  
  Abstract Background

Mechanical properties of human digits may have significant implications for the hand function. We quantified several mechanical characteristics of individual digits in young and older adults.

Methods

Digit tip friction was measured at several normal force values using a method of induced relative motion between the digit tip and the object surface. A modified quick-release paradigm was used to estimate digit apparent stiffness, damping, and inertial parameters. The subjects grasped a vertical handle instrumented with force/moment sensors using a prismatic grasp with four digits; the handle was fixed to the table. Unexpectedly, one of the sensors yielded leading to a quick displacement of the corresponding digit. A second-order, linear model was used to fit the force/displacement data.

Findings

Friction of the digit pads was significantly lower in older adults. The apparent stiffness coefficient values were higher while the damping coefficients were lower in older adults leading to lower damping ratio. The damping ratio was above unity for most data in young adults and below unity for older adults. Quick release of a digit led to force changes in other digits of the hand, likely due to inertial hand properties. These phenomena of “mechanical enslaving” were smaller in older adults although no significant difference was found in the inertial parameter in the two groups.

Interpretations

The decreased friction and damping ratio present challenges for the control of everyday prehensile tasks. They may lead to excessive digit forces and low stability of the grasped object.
 
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  ISSN 0268-0033 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 73  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kaufman-Cohen, Y.; Portnoy, S.; Levanon, Y.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Does Object Height Affect the Dart Throwing Motion Angle during Seated Activities of Daily Living? Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Motor Behavior Abbreviated Journal J Mot Behav  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords (down) dart throwing motion (DTM); heights; kinematics; seated activities of daily living (ADL); upper extremity; wrist rehabilitation  
  Abstract Complex wrist motions are needed to complete various daily activities. Analyzing the multidimensional motion of the wrist is crucial for understanding our functional movement. Several studies have shown that numerous activities of daily livings (ADLs) are performed using an oblique plane of wrist motion from radial-extension to ulnar-flexion, named the Dart Throwing Motion (DTM) plane. To the best of our knowledge, the DTM plane angle performed during ADLs has not been compared between different heights (e.g. table, shoulder and head height), as is common when performing day-to-day tasks. In this study, we compared DTM plane angles when performing different ADLs at three different heights and examined the relationship between DTM plane angles and limb position. We found that height had a significant effect on the DTM plane angles – the mean DTM plane angle was greater at the lower level compared to the mid and higher levels. A significant effect of shoulder orientation on mean DTM plane angles was shown in the sagittal and coronal planes. Our findings support the importance of training daily tasks at different heights during rehabilitation following wrist injuries, in order to explore a large range of DTM angles, to accommodate needs of common ADLs.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-2895 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31359843 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 100  
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Author Krasovsky, T.; Weiss, P.L.; Zuckerman, O.; Bar, A.; Keren-Capelovitch, T.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title DataSpoon: Validation of an Instrumented Spoon for Assessment of Self-Feeding Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume 20 Issue 7 Pages  
  Keywords (down) concurrent validity; feasibility; kinematics; outcome assessment; rehabilitation  
  Abstract Clinically feasible assessment of self-feeding is important for adults and children with motor impairments such as stroke or cerebral palsy. However, no validated assessment tool for self-feeding kinematics exists. This work presents an initial validation of an instrumented spoon (DataSpoon) developed as an evaluation tool for self-feeding kinematics. Ten young, healthy adults (three male; age 27.2 +/- 6.6 years) used DataSpoon at three movement speeds (slow, comfortable, fast) and with three different grips: “natural”, power and rotated power grip. Movement kinematics were recorded concurrently using DataSpoon and a magnetic motion capture system (trakSTAR). Eating events were automatically identified for both systems and kinematic measures were extracted from yaw, pitch and roll (YPR) data as well as from acceleration and tangential velocity profiles. Two-way, mixed model Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were computed to determine agreement between the systems for each kinematic variable. Most variables demonstrated fair to excellent agreement. Agreement for measures of duration, pitch and roll exceeded 0.8 (excellent agreement) for >80% of speed and grip conditions, whereas lower agreement (ICC < 0.46) was measured for tangential velocity and acceleration. A bias of 0.01-0.07 s (95% LOA [-0.54, 0.53] to [-0.63, 0.48]) was calculated for measures of duration. DataSpoon enables automatic detection of self-feeding using simple, affordable movement sensors. Using movement kinematics, variables associated with self-feeding can be identified and aid clinical reasoning for adults and children with motor impairments.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32283624; PMCID:PMC7180859 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 104  
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Author Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Yamanaka, J.; Friedman, J.; Feldman, A.G.; Levin, M.F. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 237 Issue 7 Pages 1655-1672  
  Keywords (down) Anticipatory grip force; Referent control; Stroke  
  Abstract To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group. Differences in the patterns of anticipatory GF increases before the arm movement onset between groups occurred during fast extension arm movement only. In the stroke group, longer delays between the onset of GF change and elbow motion were related to clinical upper limb deficits. Simulations showed that GFs could emerge from the difference between the actual and the referent hand aperture (Ra) specified by the CNS. Similarly, arm movement could result from changes in the referent elbow position (Re) and could be affected by the co-activation (C) command. A subgroup of stroke subjects, who increased GF before arm movement, could specify different patterns of the referent variables while reproducing the healthy typical pattern of GF-arm coordination. Stroke subjects, who increased GF after arm movement onset, also used different referent strategies than controls. Thus, altered anticipatory GF behavior in stroke subjects may be explained by deficits in referent control.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30976821 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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