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Author Latash, M.L., Friedman, J., Kim, S.W., Feldman, A.G., Zatsiorsky, V.M. pdf  url
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  Title Prehension Synergies and Control with Referent Hand Configurations Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 202 Issue 1 Pages 213-229  
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  Abstract We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb-virtual finger level (virtual finger is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb-virtual finger level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb-virtual finger level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels.  
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  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 19  
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Author Kapur, Shweta; Friedman, Jason; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Finger interaction in a three-dimensional pressing task Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 203 Issue 1 Pages 101-118  
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  Abstract Accurate control of forces produced by the fingers is essential for performing object manipulation. This study examines the indices of finger interaction when accurate time profiles of force are produced in different directions, while using one of the fingers or all four fingers of the hand. We hypothesized that patterns of unintended force production among shear force components may involve features not observed in the earlier studies of vertical force production. In particular, we expected to see unintended forces generated by non-task fingers not in the

direction on the instructed force but in the opposite direction as well as substantial force production in directions orthogonal to the instructed direction. We also tested a hypothesis that multi-finger synergies, quantified using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, will help reduce across-trials variance of both total force magnitude and direction. Young, healthy subjects were required to produce accurate ramps of force in five different directions by

pressing on force sensors with the fingers of the right (dominant) hand. The index finger induced the smallest unintended forces in non-task fingers. The little finger showed the smallest unintended forces when it was a non-task finger. Task fingers showed substantial force production in directions orthogonal to the intended force direction. During four-finger tasks, individual force vectors typically pointed off the task direction, with these deviations nearly

perfectly matched to produce a resultant force in the task direction. Multi-finger synergy indices reflected strong co-variation in the space of finger modes (commands to fingers) that reduced variability of the total force magnitude and direction across trials. The synergy indices increased in magnitude over the first 30% of the trial time and then stayed at a nearly constant level. The synergy index for stabilization of total force magnitude was higher for shear force components as compared to the downward pressing force component. The results suggest complex interactions between enslaving and synergic force adjustments, possibly reflecting the experience with everyday prehensile tasks. For the first time, the data document multi-finger synergies stabilizing both shear force magnitude and force vector direction. These synergies may play a major role in

stabilizing the hand action during object manipulation.
 
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  Notes in press Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 20  
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Author Shaklai, S.; Mimouni-Bloch, A.; Levin, M.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Development of finger force coordination in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 235 Issue 12 Pages 37093720  
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  Abstract Coordination is often observed as body parts moving together. However, when producing force with multiple fingers, the optimal coordination is not to produce similar forces with each finger, but rather for each finger to correct mistakes of other fingers. In this study, we aim to determine whether and how this skill develops in children aged 4-12 years. We measured this sort of coordination using the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis (UCM). We recorded finger forces produced by 60 typically developing children aged between 4 and 12 years in a finger-pressing task. The children controlled the height of an object on a screen by the total amount of force they produced on force sensors. We found that the synergy index, a measure of the relationship between “good” and “bad” variance, increased linearly as a function of age. This improvement was achieved by a selective reduction in “bad” variance rather than an increase in “good” variance. We did not observe differences between males and females, and the synergy index was not able to predict outcomes of upper limb behavioral tests after controlling for age. As children develop between the ages of 4 and 12 years, their ability to produce negative covariation between their finger forces improves, likely related to their improved ability to perform dexterous tasks.  
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  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number Shaklai2017 Serial 86  
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Author Friedman, Jason; SKM, Varadhan; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title The sources of two components of variance: an example of multifinger cyclic force production tasks at different frequencies Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 196 Issue 2 Pages 263-277  
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  Abstract In a multifinger cyclic force production task, the finger force variance measured across trials can be decomposed into two components, one that affects the combined force output (“bad variance”) and one that does not (“good variance”). Previous studies have found similar time patterns of “bad variance” and force rate leading to an approximately linear relationship between them. Based on this finding and a recently developed model of multifinger force production, we expected the “bad variance” during cyclic force production to increase monotonically with the rate of force change, both within a cycle and across trials at different frequencies. Alternatively, “bad variance” could show a dependence on task frequency, not on actual force derivative values. Healthy subjects were required to produce cyclic force patterns to prescribed targets by pressing on unidimensional force sensors, at a frequency set by a metronome. The task was performed with only the index finger, and with all four fingers. In the task with all four fingers, the “good variance” increased approximately linearly with an increase in the force magnitude. The “bad variance” showed within-a-cycle modulation similar to that of the force rate. However, an increase in the frequency did not lead to an increase in the “bad variance” that could be expected based on the natural relationships between action frequency and the rate of force change modulation. The results have been interpreted in the framework of an earlier model of multifinger force production where “bad variance” is a result of variance of the timing parameter. The unexpected lack of modulation of the “bad variance” with frequency suggests a drop in variance of the timing parameter with increased frequency. This mechanism may serve to maintain a constant acceptable level of variance under different conditions.  
  Address Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:19468721 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 15  
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Author Friedman, Jason; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Prehension synergies: a study of digit force adjustments to the continuously varied load force exerted on a partially constrained hand-held object Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 197 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
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  Abstract We examined how the digit forces adjust when a load force acting on a hand-held object continuously varies. The subjects were required to hold the handle still while a linearly increasing and then decreasing force was applied to the handle. The handle was constrained, such that it could only move up and down, and rotate about a horizontal axis. In addition, the moment arm of the thumb tangential force was 1.5 times the moment arm of the virtual finger (VF, an imagined finger with the mechanical action equal to that of the four fingers) force. Unlike the situation when there are equal moment arms, the experimental setup forced the subjects to choose between (a) sharing equally the increase in load force between the thumb and VF but generating a moment of tangential force, which had to be compensated by negatively co-varying the moment due to normal forces, or (b) sharing unequally the load force increase between the thumb and VF but preventing generation of a moment of tangential forces. We found that different subjects tended to use one of these two strategies. These findings suggest that the selection by the CNS of prehension synergies at the VF-thumb level with respect to the moment of force is non-obligatory and reflects individual subject preferences. This unequal sharing of the load by the tangential forces, in contrast to the previously observed equal sharing, suggests that the invariant feature of prehension may be a correlated increase in tangential forces rather than an equal increase.  
  Address Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, 39 Recreation Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA, jason.friedman@psu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19554319 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 16  
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