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Author Bezalel, G.; Nachoum Arad, G.; Plotnik, M.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Voluntary step execution in patients with knee osteoarthritis: Symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic legs Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication (down) Gait & Posture Abbreviated Journal Gait Posture  
  Volume 83 Issue Pages 60-66  
  Keywords Accidental falls; Gait; Knee; Osteoarthritis; Voluntary step  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Individuals with osteoarthritis fall at a greater rate than the general population, likely as a result of weakness, pain, movement limitations, and a decline in balance. Due to the high prevalence of osteoarthritis in the population, understanding the mechanisms leading to greater fall risk is an important issue to better understand. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the influence of unilateral knee osteoarthritis on the characteristics of performing a voluntary step (i.e., similar to that performed to avoid a fall after a perturbation), compared to healthy age-matched controls? METHODS: Case-control study performed in a Health maintenance organization physical therapy clinic. The research group consisted of a referred sample of 21 patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. The control group consisted of 22 age-matched healthy individuals. All participants were over 65 years of age. Participants were excluded if they had a surgical procedure to back or lower limb within one year before testing, oncological or neurological disease or a deficit in tactile sense. Movements were performed with and without dual tasking. MEASUREMENTS: Duration of the initiation phase (cue to step initiation), preparatory phase (step initiation to foot off) and swing phase (foot off to foot contact). RESULTS: In the preparatory phase and swing phase, the osteoarthritis group moved more slowly than the control group, and these differences were larger for forward compared to backward movements. Dual-tasking slowed responses in the pre-movement initiation stage across groups. SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in basic parameters, and the slower movements in the osteoarthritis group, are consistent with known features of osteoarthritis, being a disease commonly regarded as primarily “mechanical”, and are likely to increase fall risk. These response deficits suggest we should take advantage of advanced rehabilitation techniques, including cognitive loading, to help prevent falls in older adults with osteoarthritis.  
  Address Dept. Physical Therapy, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address: jason@tau.ac.il  
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  ISSN 0966-6362 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33080457 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 107  
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Author Noy, L.; Weiser, N.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Synchrony in Joint Action Is Directed by Each Participant's Motor Control System Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (down) Frontiers in Psychology Abbreviated Journal Front. Psychol.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 531  
  Keywords visuomotor tracking; mirror game; intermittent control; joint action; motor control  
  Abstract In this work, we ask how the probability of achieving synchrony in joint action is affected by the choice of motion parameters of each individual. We use the mirror game paradigm to study how changes in leader�s motion parameters, specifically frequency and peak velocity, affect the probability of entering the state of co-confidence (CC) motion: a dyadic state of synchronized, smooth and co-predictive motions. In order to systematically study this question, we used a one-person version of the mirror game, where the participant mirrored piece-wise rhythmic movements produced by a computer on a graphics tablet. We systematically varied the frequency and peak velocity of the movements to determine how these parameters affect the likelihood of synchronized joint action. To assess synchrony in the mirror game we used the previously developed marker of co-confident (CC) motions: smooth, jitter-less and synchronized motions indicative of co-predicative control. We found that when mirroring movements with low frequencies (i.e., long duration movements), the participants never showed CC, and as the frequency of the stimuli increased, the probability of observing CC also increased. This finding is discussed in the framework of motor control studies showing an upper limit on the duration of smooth motion. We confirmed the relationship between motion parameters and the probability to perform CC with three sets of data of open-ended two-player mirror games. These findings demonstrate that when performing movements together, there are optimal movement frequencies to use in order to maximize the possibility of entering a state of synchronized joint action. It also shows that the ability to perform synchronized joint action is constrained by the properties of our motor control systems.  
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  ISSN 1664-1078 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 84  
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Author Awasthi, B.; Sowman, P.F.; Friedman, J.; Williams, M.A. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Distinct spatial scale sensitivities for early categorisation of Faces and Places: Neuromagnetic and Behavioural Findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue 91 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Research exploring the role of spatial frequencies in rapid stimulus detection and categorisation report flexible reliance on specific spatial frequency bands. Here, through a set of behavioural and magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments, we investigated the role of low spatial frequency (LSF)(25 cpf) information during the categorisation of faces and places. Reaction time measures revealed significantly faster categorisation of faces driven by LSF information, while rapid categorisation of places was facilitated by HSF information. The MEG study showed significantly earlier latency of the M170 component for LSF faces compared to HSF faces. Moreover, the M170 amplitude was larger for LSF faces than for LSF places, whereas the reverse pattern was evident for HSF faces and places. These results suggest that spatial frequency modulates the processing of category specific information for faces and places.  
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  ISSN 1662-5161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 67  
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Author Friedman, J.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Offline Optimization of the Relative Timing of Movements in a Sequence Is Blocked by Retroactive Behavioral Interference Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (down) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Hum. Neurosci.  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 623  
  Keywords learning; interference; consolidation; finger movements; kinematics  
  Abstract Acquisition of motor skills often involves the concatenation of single movements into sequences. Along the course of learning, sequential performance becomes progressively faster and smoother, presumably by optimization of both motor planning and motor execution. Following its encoding during training, “how-to” memory undergoes consolidation, reflecting transformations in performance and its neurobiological underpinnings over time. This offline post-training memory process is characterized by two phenomena: reduced sensitivity to interference and the emergence of delayed, typically overnight, gains in performance. Here, using a training protocol that effectively induces motor sequence memory consolidation, we tested temporal and kinematic parameters of performance within (online) and between (offline) sessions, and their sensitivity to retroactive interference. One group learned a given finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), and showed robust delayed (consolidation) gains in the number of correct sequences performed at 24 h. A second group learned an additional (interference) FOS shortly after the first and did not show delayed gains. Reduction of touch times and inter-movement intervals significantly contributed to the overall offline improvement of performance overnight. However, only the offline inter-movement interval shortening was selectively blocked by the interference experience. Velocity and amplitude, comprising movement time, also significantly changed across the consolidation period but were interference-insensitive. Moreover, they paradoxically canceled out each other. Current results suggest that shifts in the representation of the trained sequence are subserved by multiple processes: from distinct changes in kinematic characteristics of individual finger movements to high-level, temporal reorganization of the movements as a unit. Each of these processes has a distinct time course and a specific susceptibility to retroactive interference. This multiple-component view may bridge the gap in understanding the link between the behavioral changes, which define online and offline learning, and the biological mechanisms that support those changes.  
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  ISSN 1662-5161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 83  
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Biess, A.; Friedman, J.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flash, T. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Intrinsic joint kinematic planning. I: reassessing the Listing's law constraint in the control of three-dimensional arm movements Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication (down) Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 171 Issue 2 Pages 139-154  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; *Arm; Biomechanics; Eye Movements/*physiology; Humans; Joints/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; *Musculoskeletal System; Orientation/*physiology; Posture  
  Abstract This study tested the validity of the assumption that intrinsic kinematic constraints, such as Listing's law, can account for the geometric features of three-dimensional arm movements. In principle, if the arm joints follow a Listing's constraint, the hand paths may be predicted. Four individuals performed 'extended arm', 'radial', 'frontal plane', and 'random mixed' movements to visual targets to test Listing's law assumption. Three-dimensional rotation vectors of the upper arm and forearm were calculated from three-dimensional marker data. Data fitting techniques were used to test Donders' and Listing's laws. The coefficient values obtained from fitting rotation vectors to the surfaces described by a second-order equation were analyzed. The results showed that the coefficients that represent curvature and twist of the surfaces were often not significantly different from zero, particularly not during randomly mixed and extended arm movements. These coefficients for forearm rotations were larger compared to those for the upper arm segment rotations. The mean thickness of the rotation surfaces ranged between approximately 1.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees for the rotation vectors of the upper arm segment and approximately 2.6 degrees and 7.5 degrees for those of the forearm. During frontal plane movements, forearm rotations showed large twist scores while upper arm segment rotations showed large curvatures, although the thickness of the surfaces remained low. The curvatures, but not the thicknesses of the surfaces, were larger for large versus small amplitude radial movements. In conclusion, when examining the surfaces obtained for the different movement types, the rotation vectors may lie within manifolds that are anywhere between curved or twisted manifolds. However, a two-dimensional thick surface may roughly represent a global arm constraint. Our findings suggest that Listing's law is implemented for some types of arm movement, such as pointing to targets with the extended arm and during radial reaching movements.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il  
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  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16341526 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 18  
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