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Author (up) Krasovsky, T.; Berman, S.; Liebermann, D.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kinematic features of continuous hand reaching movements under simple and complex rhythmical constraints Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 636-641  
  Keywords *Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Biomechanics; *Cues; Female; Hand/*physiology; Humans; Male; Movement/*physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Auditory cues are known to alter movement kinematics in healthy people as well as in people with neurological conditions (e.g., Parkinson's disease or stroke). Pacing movement to rhythmical constraints is known to change both the spatial and temporal features of movement. However, the effect of complexity of pacing on the spatial and temporal kinematic properties is still poorly understood. The current study investigated spatial and temporal aspects of movement (path and speed, respectively) and their integration while subjects followed simple isochronous or complex non-isochronous rhythmical constraints. Spatiotemporal decoupling was expected under the latter constraint. METHODS: Ten subjects performed point-to-point hand movements towards visual targets on the surface of a hemisphere, while following continuous auditory cues of different pace and meter. The spatial and temporal properties of movement were compared to geodesic paths and unimodal bell-shaped speed profiles, respectively. Multiple two-way RM-ANOVAs (pace [1-2 Hz] x meter [duple-triple]) were performed on the different kinematic variables calculated to assess hand deviations from the model data (p< or = 0.05). RESULTS: As expected, increasing pace resulted in straighter hand paths and smoother speed profiles. Meter, however, affected only the path (shorter and straighter under triple) without significantly changing speed. Such an effect was observed at the slow pace only. CONCLUSIONS: Under simple rhythmic cues, an increase in pace causes spontaneous adjustments in spatial features (straighter hand paths) while preserving temporal ones (maximally-smoothed hand speeds). Complex rhythmical cues in contrast perturb spatiotemporal coupling and challenge movement control. These results may have important practical implications in motor rehabilitation.  
  Address Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20382031 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 32  
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Author (up) Lackritz, H.; Parmet, Y.; Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Banina, M.C.; Soroker, N.; Solomon, J.M.; Liebermann, D.G.; Levin, M.F.; Berman, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of post-stroke spasticity on voluntary movement of the upper limb Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation Abbreviated Journal J Neuroeng Rehabil  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 81  
  Keywords Gaussian mixture model; Hellinger's distance; Hemiparesis; Kinematics; Kullback-Liebler divergence; Spasticity; Stochastic model; Stroke  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Hemiparesis following stroke is often accompanied by spasticity. Spasticity is one factor among the multiple components of the upper motor neuron syndrome that contributes to movement impairment. However, the specific contribution of spasticity is difficult to isolate and quantify. We propose a new method of quantification and evaluation of the impact of spasticity on the quality of movement following stroke. METHODS: Spasticity was assessed using the Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold (TSRT). TSRT was analyzed in relation to stochastic models of motion to quantify the deviation of the hemiparetic upper limb motion from the normal motion patterns during a reaching task. Specifically, we assessed the impact of spasticity in the elbow flexors on reaching motion patterns using two distinct measures of the 'distance' between pathological and normal movement, (a) the bidirectional Kullback-Liebler divergence (BKLD) and (b) Hellinger's distance (HD). These measures differ in their sensitivity to different confounding variables. Motor impairment was assessed clinically by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale for the upper extremity (FMA-UE). Forty-two first-event stroke patients in the subacute phase and 13 healthy controls of similar age participated in the study. Elbow motion was analyzed in the context of repeated reach-to-grasp movements towards four differently located targets. Log-BKLD and HD along with movement time, final elbow extension angle, mean elbow velocity, peak elbow velocity, and the number of velocity peaks of the elbow motion were computed. RESULTS: Upper limb kinematics in patients with lower FMA-UE scores (greater impairment) showed greater deviation from normality when the distance between impaired and normal elbow motion was analyzed either with the BKLD or HD measures. The severity of spasticity, reflected by the TSRT, was related to the distance between impaired and normal elbow motion analyzed with either distance measure. Mean elbow velocity differed between targets, however HD was not sensitive to target location. This may point at effects of spasticity on motion quality that go beyond effects on velocity. CONCLUSIONS: The two methods for analyzing pathological movement post-stroke provide new options for studying the relationship between spasticity and movement quality under different spatiotemporal constraints.  
  Address The Zlotowski Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. sigalbe@bgu.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1743-0003 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33985543 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 108  
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Author (up) Levin, M.F.; Banina, M.C.; Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Berman, S.; Soroker, N.; Solomon, J.M.; Liebermann, D.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personalized upper limb training combined with anodal-tDCS for sensorimotor recovery in spastic hemiparesis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Trials Abbreviated Journal Trials  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 7  
  Keywords Neurorehabilitation; Spasticity; Spatial threshold; Stroke; tDCS  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Recovery of voluntary movement is a main rehabilitation goal. Efforts to identify effective upper limb (UL) interventions after stroke have been unsatisfactory. This study includes personalized impairment-based UL reaching training in virtual reality (VR) combined with non-invasive brain stimulation to enhance motor learning. The approach is guided by limiting reaching training to the angular zone in which active control is preserved (“active control zone”) after identification of a “spasticity zone”. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) is used to facilitate activation of the affected hemisphere and enhance inter-hemispheric balance. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of personalized reaching training, with and without a-tDCS, to increase the range of active elbow control and improve UL function. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled trial will take place at four academic rehabilitation centers in Canada, India and Israel. The intervention involves 10 days of personalized VR reaching training with both groups receiving the same intensity of treatment. Participants with sub-acute stroke aged 25 to 80 years with elbow spasticity will be randomized to one of three groups: personalized training (reaching within individually determined active control zones) with a-tDCS (group 1) or sham-tDCS (group 2), or non-personalized training (reaching regardless of active control zones) with a-tDCS (group 3). A baseline assessment will be performed at randomization and two follow-up assessments will occur at the end of the intervention and at 1 month post intervention. Main outcomes are elbow-flexor spatial threshold and ratio of spasticity zone to full elbow-extension range. Secondary outcomes include the Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Streamlined Wolf Motor Function Test and UL kinematics during a standardized reach-to-grasp task. DISCUSSION: This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of personalized treatment on spasticity and UL motor ability and feasibility of using low-cost interventions in low-to-middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02725853 . Initially registered on 12 January 2016.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1745-6215 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29301545 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 87  
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Author (up) Levin, M.F.; Liebermann, D.G.; Parmet, Y.; Berman, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Compensatory Versus Noncompensatory Shoulder Movements Used for Reaching in Stroke Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair Abbreviated Journal Neurorehabil Neural Repair  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords adaptation; arm movement; compensation; kinematics; recovery; rehabilitation  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The extent to which the upper-limb flexor synergy constrains or compensates for arm motor impairment during reaching is controversial. This synergy can be quantified with a minimal marker set describing movements of the arm-plane. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether and how (a) upper-limb flexor synergy in patients with chronic stroke contributes to reaching movements to different arm workspace locations and (b) reaching deficits can be characterized by arm-plane motion. METHODS: Sixteen post-stroke and 8 healthy control subjects made unrestrained reaching movements to targets located in ipsilateral, central, and contralateral arm workspaces. Arm-plane, arm, and trunk motion, and their temporal and spatial linkages were analyzed. RESULTS: Individuals with moderate/severe stroke used greater arm-plane movement and compensatory trunk movement compared to those with mild stroke and control subjects. Arm-plane and trunk movements were more temporally coupled in stroke compared with controls. Reaching accuracy was related to different segment and joint combinations for each target and group: arm-plane movement in controls and mild stroke subjects, and trunk and elbow movements in moderate/severe stroke subjects. Arm-plane movement increased with time since stroke and when combined with trunk rotation, discriminated between different subject groups for reaching the central and contralateral targets. Trunk movement and arm-plane angle during target reaches predicted the subject group. CONCLUSIONS: The upper-limb flexor synergy was used adaptively for reaching accuracy by patients with mild, but not moderate/severe stroke. The flexor synergy, as parameterized by the amount of arm-plane motion, can be used by clinicians to identify levels of motor recovery in patients with stroke.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1545-9683 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26510934 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 79  
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Author (up) Liebermann, D.G openurl 
  Title Biomechanical aspects of motor control in human landing Type Book Chapter
  Year 2008 Publication Routledge Handbook of Biomechanics and Human Movement Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Ltd Place of Publication Editor R. Bartlett; Y. Hong  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 47  
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