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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Ben-David, J.; Schweitzer, N.; Apter, Y.; Parush, A. openurl 
  Title A field study of braking reactions during driving I: Triggering and modulation Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Ergonomics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 38 Issue 9 Pages 1894-1902  
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  Abstract The present experiment was carried out to explore the response of driving subjects to emergency braking. The field trial consisted of driving behind a leading vehicle while the following drivers' responses were recorded by telemetry. A group of 51 individuals performed a series of trials at two driving speeds (60 and 80km/h), two following distances (6 and 12 m), and two braking conditions (real and dummy braking). Not all of these subjects completed all conditions or the minimum number of trials. The dependent variables were the total braking time (TBT) and its subcomponents: braking reaction time (BRT), and accelerator-to-brake movement time (MT). These data were analysed in three separate three-way ANOVAs with repeated measures on all factors. The results showed that when subjects were not aware of the forthcoming braking, the distance and braking conditions had major effects on all dependent variables. At the shorter following distance drivers reacted and moved faster. Similarly, when the brakes were real compared with dummy (i.e. brake lights only) drivers reacted faster. In addition, drivers reacted to onset of brake lights in 83% of the cases when dummy braking was applied, compared with 97% when real brakes were applied. Speed of driving did not show any significant effects and did not appear to influence the cognitive or attentional set to anticipate an emergency manoeuvre. These findings suggest that changes in angular velocity during optic expansion of the leading vehicle may be used as a cue to modulate braking movement, while onset of brake lights alone may be enough to trigger a ‘ballistic’ preventive response.  
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  Call Number Serial 57  
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Author Schweitzer, N.; Apter, Y.; Ben-David, J.; Liebermann, D.G.; Parush, A. openurl 
  Title A field study of braking reactions during driving II: Minimum driver braking times Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Ergonomics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 38 Issue 9 Pages 1903-1910  
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  Abstract The minimum total braking time (i.e. the braking reaction time plus the accelerator-to-brake movement time) plays an important role in defining a minimum following gap (MFG). This study was designed to obtain a lower limit for this gap. Total braking times (TBT) of a group of 51 male and female young athletes were monitored during real driving conditions. Sudden braking applied by a leading private passenger vehicle initiated the trials. A within-subject design was used to study the effects of different factors on braking time. Individuals performed a series of semi-counterbalanced trials at two following distances (6 and 12 m), two speeds (60 and 80 km/h) and three expectancy stages (naïve driving, partial knowledge, and full knowledge of the forthcoming manoeuvre). A three-way repeated measures ANOVA showed no major effects of ‘speed’, but major effects of the ‘expectancy’ and the ‘distance’ factors. The experiment yielded a mean TBT of 0·678 s (SD = 0·144 s) for trials averaged over distances and speeds in the naïve condition only. The data emphasize the role played by pre-cues in the braking response prior to emergency stops. Both the level of awareness of the forthcoming manoeuvre and the distance between vehicles appear to determine the response time. The descriptive statistics presented may also provide the basis for an objective, acceptable and legally valid minimum time gap for prosecution of ‘careless’ drivers.  
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  Call Number Serial 58  
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Author Tenenbaum, G.; Kohler, N.; Shraga, S.; Liebermann, D.G.; Lidor, R. openurl 
  Title Anticipation and confidence of decisions related to skilled performance Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Sport Psychology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 293-307  
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  Abstract This study was carried out to examine anticipatory decisions of novice, intermediate, and expert tennis players and the confidence with which these decisions are made by these athletes. Perceived eye-focus was also measured to verify whether it is related to expertise level prior to action execution. Forty-five Australian players, 15 in each skill category, were exposed to 6 temporal occluded film conditions (480, 320, 160 ms prior to racquet-ball contact, at contact, and 160 and 320 ms after contact) in randomized order within 8 tennis strokes. In each condition, after viewing the filmed sequence, they were asked to report the final ball location of the opponent's stroke, how confident they were in this decision, and their perceived eye-focus location during the sequence. Experts and intermediates were superior in anticipatory decisions to their counterparts, only under short exposure durations. Novices showed more confidence than experts and intermediates at the beginning of the sequence, but after 160 and 320 ms of ball-racquet contact, experts were much more confident than novices, and intermediates. Self-reported eye-focus differed substantially with respect to expertise level. While experts attended to several locations prior to ball-racquet contact, intermediate and novice players gazed at one location. After contact, the reverse was evident. The findings are in partial agreement with other studies which have applied the temporal occlusion paradigm to study expert-novice differences in anticipatory skills.  
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  Call Number Serial 59  
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Issurin V. openurl 
  Title Effects of vibratory stimulation on the perception of effort during isotonic contractions Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Journal of Human Movement Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 32 Issue Pages 171-186  
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  Call Number Serial 61  
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Author Frenkel-Toledoa, S.; Bentin, S.; Perry, A.; Liebermann, D. G.; Soroker, N. doi  openurl
  Title Mirror-neuron system recruitment by action observation: Effects of focal brain damage on mu suppression Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 127-137  
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  Abstract Mu suppression is the attenuation of EEG power in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz), recorded over the sensorimotor cortex during execution and observation of motor actions. Based on this dual characteristic it is thought to signalize activation of a human analogue of the mirror neuron system (MNS) found in macaque monkeys, though much uncertainty remains concerning its specificity and full significance. To further explore the hypothesized relationship between mu suppression and MNS activation, we investigated how it is affected by damage to cortical regions, including areas where the MNS is thought to reside. EEG was recorded in 33 first-event stroke patients during observation of video-clips showing reaching and grasping hand movements. We examined the modulation of EEG oscillations at central and occipital sites, and analyzed separately the lower (8-10 Hz) and higher (10-12 Hz) segments of the alpha/mu range. Suppression was determined relative to observation of a non-biological movement. Normalized lesion data were used to investigate how damage to regions of the fronto-parietal cortex affects the pattern of suppression. The magnitude of mu suppression during action observation was significantly reduced in the affected hemisphere compared to the unaffected hemisphere. Differences between the hemispheres were significant at central (sensorimotor) sites but not at occipital (visual) sites. Total hemispheric volume loss did not correlate with mu suppression. Suppression in the lower mu range in the unaffected hemisphere (C3) correlated with lesion extent within the right inferior parietal cortex. Our lesion study supports the role of mu suppression as a marker of MNS activation, as suggested by findings gathered in previous studies in normal subjects.  
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  Call Number Serial 71  
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