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Author Krasovsky, T.; Berman, S.; Liebermann, D.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kinematic features of continuous hand reaching movements under simple and complex rhythmical constraints Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol  
  Volume 20 Issue (up) 4 Pages 636-641  
  Keywords *Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Biomechanics; *Cues; Female; Hand/*physiology; Humans; Male; Movement/*physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Auditory cues are known to alter movement kinematics in healthy people as well as in people with neurological conditions (e.g., Parkinson's disease or stroke). Pacing movement to rhythmical constraints is known to change both the spatial and temporal features of movement. However, the effect of complexity of pacing on the spatial and temporal kinematic properties is still poorly understood. The current study investigated spatial and temporal aspects of movement (path and speed, respectively) and their integration while subjects followed simple isochronous or complex non-isochronous rhythmical constraints. Spatiotemporal decoupling was expected under the latter constraint. METHODS: Ten subjects performed point-to-point hand movements towards visual targets on the surface of a hemisphere, while following continuous auditory cues of different pace and meter. The spatial and temporal properties of movement were compared to geodesic paths and unimodal bell-shaped speed profiles, respectively. Multiple two-way RM-ANOVAs (pace [1-2 Hz] x meter [duple-triple]) were performed on the different kinematic variables calculated to assess hand deviations from the model data (p< or = 0.05). RESULTS: As expected, increasing pace resulted in straighter hand paths and smoother speed profiles. Meter, however, affected only the path (shorter and straighter under triple) without significantly changing speed. Such an effect was observed at the slow pace only. CONCLUSIONS: Under simple rhythmic cues, an increase in pace causes spontaneous adjustments in spatial features (straighter hand paths) while preserving temporal ones (maximally-smoothed hand speeds). Complex rhythmical cues in contrast perturb spatiotemporal coupling and challenge movement control. These results may have important practical implications in motor rehabilitation.  
  Address Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Canada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20382031 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 32  
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Author Merdler, T.; Liebermann, D.G.; Levin, M.F.; Berman, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Arm-plane representation of shoulder compensation during pointing movements in patients with stroke Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol  
  Volume 23 Issue (up) 4 Pages 938947  
  Keywords Kinematics; Arm movement; Rehabilitation  
  Abstract Improvements in functional motor activities are often accompanied by motor compensations to overcome persistent motor impairment in the upper limb. Kinematic analysis is used to objectively quantify movement patterns including common motor compensations such as excessive trunk displacement during reaching. However, a common motor compensation to assist reaching, shoulder abduction, is not adequately characterized by current motion analysis approaches. We apply the arm-plane representation that accounts for the co-variation between movements of the whole arm, and investigate its ability to identify and quantify compensatory arm movements in stroke subjects when making forward arm reaches. This method has not been previously applied to the analysis of motion deficits. Sixteen adults with right post-stroke hemiparesis and eight healthy age-matched controls reached in three target directions (14 trials/target; sampling rate: 100Hz). Arm-plane movement was validated against endpoint, joint, and trunk kinematics and compared between groups. In stroke subjects, arm-plane measures were correlated with arm impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment) and ability (Box and Blocks) scores and were more sensitive than clinical measures to detect mild motor impairment. Arm-plane motion analysis provides new information about motor compensations involving the co-variation of shoulder and elbow movements that may help to understand the underlying motor deficits in patients with stroke.  
  Address Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23566477 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 69  
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Author Melzer, I.; Liebermann, D.G.; Krasovsky, T.; Oddsson, L.I.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cognitive load affects lower limb force-time relations during voluntary rapid stepping in healthy old and young adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Abbreviated Journal J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci  
  Volume 65 Issue (up) 4 Pages 400-406  
  Keywords *Accidental Falls; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Attention/physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Gait/*physiology; Humans; Postural Balance/*physiology; Reaction Time  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Quick step execution may prevent falls when balance is lost; adding a concurrent task delays this function. We investigate whether push-off force-time relations during the execution of rapid voluntary stepping is affected by a secondary task in older and young adults. METHODS: Nineteen healthy older adults and 12 young adults performed rapid voluntary stepping under single- and dual-task conditions. Peak power, peak force, and time to peak force during preparatory and swing phases of stepping were extracted from center of pressure and ground reaction force data. RESULTS: For dual-task condition compared with single-task condition, older adults show a longer time to reach peak force during the preparation and swing phases compared with young adults (approximately 25% vs approximately 10%, respectively). Peak power and peak force were not affected by a concurrent attention-demanding task. CONCLUSION: Older adults have difficulty allocating sufficient attention for fast muscle recruitment when concurrently challenged by an attention-demanding task.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1079-5006 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19939911 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 50  
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Author Biess, A.; Liebermann, D.G.; Flash, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A computational model for redundant human three-dimensional pointing movements: integration of independent spatial and temporal motor plans simplifies movement dynamics Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 27 Issue (up) 48 Pages 13045-13064  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Arm/physiology; Biomechanics; *Computer Simulation; Humans; *Models, Biological; Movement/*physiology; *Nonlinear Dynamics; Posture/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Space Perception/*physiology; Time Factors; Torque  
  Abstract Few computational models have addressed the spatiotemporal features of unconstrained three-dimensional (3D) arm motion. Empirical observations made on hand paths, speed profiles, and arm postures during point-to-point movements led to the assumption that hand path and arm posture are independent of movement speed, suggesting that the geometric and temporal properties of movements are decoupled. In this study, we present a computational model of 3D movements for an arm with four degrees of freedom based on the assumption that optimization principles are separately applied at the geometric and temporal levels of control. Geometric properties (path and posture) are defined in terms of geodesic paths with respect to the kinetic energy metric in the Riemannian configuration space. Accordingly, a geodesic path can be generated with less muscular effort than on any other, nongeodesic path, because the sum of all configuration-speed-dependent torques vanishes. The temporal properties of the movement (speed) are determined in task space by minimizing the squared jerk along the selected end-effector path. The integration of both planning levels into a single spatiotemporal representation simplifies the control of arm dynamics along geodesic paths and results in movements with near minimal torque change and minimal peak value of kinetic energy. Thus, the application of Riemannian geometry allows for a reconciliation of computational models previously proposed for the description of arm movements. We suggest that geodesics are an emergent property of the motor system through the exploration of dynamical space. Our data validated the predictions for joint trajectories, hand paths, final postures, speed profiles, and driving torques.  
  Address Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel. armin.biess@weizmann.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18045899 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 35  
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Author Berman, S.; Liebermann, D.G.; McIntyre, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Constrained Motion Control on a Hemispherical Surface – Path Planning Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Neurophysiology Abbreviated Journal J Neurophysiol  
  Volume 111 Issue (up) 5 Pages 954-968  
  Keywords Constrained motion; geodesics; path planning  
  Abstract Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding the paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated that following a geodesic path is advantageous not only in terms of path length, but also in terms of motor planning and sensitivity to motor command errors. These stem from the fact that the applied forces lie in a single plane (that of the geodesic path itself). To test whether human subjects indeed follow the geodesic, and to see how such motion compares to other paths, we recorded movements in a virtual haptic-visual environment from eleven healthy subjects. The task was comprised of point-to-point motion between targets at two elevations (30 degrees and 60 degrees ). Three typical choices of paths were observed from a frontal plane projection of the paths: circular arcs, straight lines, and arcs close to the geodesic path for each elevation. Based on the measured hand paths, we applied k-means blind separation to divide the subjects into three groups and compared performance indicators. The analysis confirmed that subjects who followed paths closest to the geodesic produced faster and smoother movements, compared to the others. The 'better' performance reflects the dynamical advantages of following the geodesic path, as shown by the simulations, and may also reflect invariant features of the control policies used to produce such a surface-constrained motion.  
  Address Ben-Gurion University of the Negev  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3077 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24259548 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 72  
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