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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Biess, A.; Friedman, J.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flash, T. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Intrinsic joint kinematic planning. I: reassessing the Listing's law constraint in the control of three-dimensional arm movements Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 171 Issue 2 Pages 139-154  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; *Arm; Biomechanics; Eye Movements/*physiology; Humans; Joints/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; *Musculoskeletal System; Orientation/*physiology; Posture  
  Abstract This study tested the validity of the assumption that intrinsic kinematic constraints, such as Listing's law, can account for the geometric features of three-dimensional arm movements. In principle, if the arm joints follow a Listing's constraint, the hand paths may be predicted. Four individuals performed 'extended arm', 'radial', 'frontal plane', and 'random mixed' movements to visual targets to test Listing's law assumption. Three-dimensional rotation vectors of the upper arm and forearm were calculated from three-dimensional marker data. Data fitting techniques were used to test Donders' and Listing's laws. The coefficient values obtained from fitting rotation vectors to the surfaces described by a second-order equation were analyzed. The results showed that the coefficients that represent curvature and twist of the surfaces were often not significantly different from zero, particularly not during randomly mixed and extended arm movements. These coefficients for forearm rotations were larger compared to those for the upper arm segment rotations. The mean thickness of the rotation surfaces ranged between approximately 1.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees for the rotation vectors of the upper arm segment and approximately 2.6 degrees and 7.5 degrees for those of the forearm. During frontal plane movements, forearm rotations showed large twist scores while upper arm segment rotations showed large curvatures, although the thickness of the surfaces remained low. The curvatures, but not the thicknesses of the surfaces, were larger for large versus small amplitude radial movements. In conclusion, when examining the surfaces obtained for the different movement types, the rotation vectors may lie within manifolds that are anywhere between curved or twisted manifolds. However, a two-dimensional thick surface may roughly represent a global arm constraint. Our findings suggest that Listing's law is implemented for some types of arm movement, such as pointing to targets with the extended arm and during radial reaching movements.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16341526 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 18  
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Author Hoffman, J.R.; Liebermann, D.; Gusis, A. url  openurl
  Title Relationship of leg strength and power to ground reaction forces in both experienced and novice jump trained personnel Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Aviat Space Environ Med  
  Volume 68 Issue 8 Pages 710-714  
  Keywords *Aerospace Medicine; *Aviation; Biomechanics; Humans; Leg/*physiology; Male; Military Personnel/*education; *Physical Education and Training; Physical Fitness/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular; Wounds and Injuries/etiology/*prevention & control  
  Abstract METHODS: There were 14 male soldiers who participated in this study examining the relationship of leg strength and power on landing performance. Subjects were separated into two groups. The first group (E, n = 7) were parachute training instructors and highly experienced in parachute jumping. The second group of subjects (N, n = 7) had no prior parachute training experience and were considered novice jumpers. All subjects were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) squat strength and maximal jump power. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and the time to peak force (TPF) at landing were measured from jumps at four different heights (95 cm, 120 cm, 145 cm, and 170 cm). All jumps were performed from a customized jump platform onto a force plate. RESULTS: No differences were seen between E and N in either IRM squat strength or in MJP. In addition, no differences were seen between the groups for time to peak force at any jump height. However, significantly greater GRF were observed in E compared to N. Moderate to high correlations between maximal jump power and GRF (r values ranging from 0.62-0.93) were observed in E. Although maximal jump power and the TPF was significantly correlated (r = -0.89) at only 120 cm for E, it was interesting to note that the correlations between MJP and the time to peak force in E were all negative and that the correlations between these variables in N were all positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that experienced parachutists may use a different landing strategy than novice jumpers. This difference may be reflected by differences in GRF generated during impact and a more efficient utilization of muscle power during the impact phase of the landing.  
  Address Aeromedical Center, Physiological Training Unit, Israel Air Force, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0095-6562 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9262813 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 60  
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Author Biess, A.; Flash, T.; Liebermann, D.G. url  openurl
  Title Riemannian geometric approach to human arm dynamics, movement optimization, and invariance Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Abbreviated Journal Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys  
  Volume 83 Issue 3 Pt 1 Pages 031927  
  Keywords Arm/*physiology; Biomechanics; Computer Simulation; Humans; Kinetics; Male; Models, Biological; Models, Statistical; Models, Theoretical; *Movement; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Space Perception/*physiology; Torque  
  Abstract We present a generally covariant formulation of human arm dynamics and optimization principles in Riemannian configuration space. We extend the one-parameter family of mean-squared-derivative (MSD) cost functionals from Euclidean to Riemannian space, and we show that they are mathematically identical to the corresponding dynamic costs when formulated in a Riemannian space equipped with the kinetic energy metric. In particular, we derive the equivalence of the minimum-jerk and minimum-torque change models in this metric space. Solutions of the one-parameter family of MSD variational problems in Riemannian space are given by (reparameterized) geodesic paths, which correspond to movements with least muscular effort. Finally, movement invariants are derived from symmetries of the Riemannian manifold. We argue that the geometrical structure imposed on the arm's configuration space may provide insights into the emerging properties of the movements generated by the motor system.  
  Address Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, DE-37073 Gottingen, Germany. armin@nld.ds.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1539-3755 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21517543 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 29  
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Author Liebermann, D.G.; Levin, M.F.; McIntyre, J.; Weiss, P.L.; Berman, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Arm path fragmentation and spatiotemporal features of hand reaching in healthy subjects and stroke patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Abbreviated Journal Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc  
  Volume 2010 Issue Pages 5242-5245  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Analysis of Variance; Arm/*physiology; Biomechanics/physiology; Female; Hand/*physiology; *Health; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Movement/*physiology; Posture/physiology; Principal Component Analysis; Stroke/*physiopathology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Arm motion in healthy humans is characterized by smooth and relatively short paths. The current study focused on 3D reaching in stroke patients. Sixteen right-hemiparetic stroke patients and 8 healthy adults performed 42 reaching movements towards 3 visual targets located at an extended arm distance. Performance was assessed in terms of spatial and temporal features of the movement; i.e., hand path, arm posture and smoothness. Differences between groups and within subjects were hypothesized for spatial and temporal aspects of reaching under the assumption that both are independent. As expected, upper limb motion of patients was characterized by longer and jerkier hand paths and slower speeds. Assessment of the number of sub-movements within each movement did not clearly discriminate between groups. Principal component analyses revealed specific clusters of either spatial or temporal measures, which accounted for a large proportion of the variance in patients but not in healthy controls. These findings support the notion of a separation between spatial and temporal features of movement. Stroke patients may fail to integrate the two aspects when executing reaching movements towards visual targets.  
  Address Physical Therapy Dept., Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1557-170X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21096047 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 30  
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Author Roijezon, U.; Djupsjobacka, M.; Bjorklund, M.; Hager-Ross, C.; Grip, H.; Liebermann, D.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders Abbreviated Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 222  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Biomechanics/*physiology; Cervical Vertebrae/*physiopathology; Chronic Disease; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Head Movements/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Neck Pain/*diagnosis/*etiology/physiopathology; Physical Examination/methods; Reproducibility of Results; Rotation/*adverse effects; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. METHODS: Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. RESULTS: Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 +/- 88 degrees /s and CON: 348 +/- 92 degrees /s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. CONCLUSIONS: Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between groups calls for caution in the interpretation of individual assessments.  
  Address Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gavle, Sweden. ulrik.roijezon@ltu.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2474 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20875135 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 31  
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