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Author (up) Biess, A.; Liebermann, D.G.; Flash, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A computational model for redundant human three-dimensional pointing movements: integration of independent spatial and temporal motor plans simplifies movement dynamics Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 27 Issue 48 Pages 13045-13064  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Arm/physiology; Biomechanics; *Computer Simulation; Humans; *Models, Biological; Movement/*physiology; *Nonlinear Dynamics; Posture/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Space Perception/*physiology; Time Factors; Torque  
  Abstract Few computational models have addressed the spatiotemporal features of unconstrained three-dimensional (3D) arm motion. Empirical observations made on hand paths, speed profiles, and arm postures during point-to-point movements led to the assumption that hand path and arm posture are independent of movement speed, suggesting that the geometric and temporal properties of movements are decoupled. In this study, we present a computational model of 3D movements for an arm with four degrees of freedom based on the assumption that optimization principles are separately applied at the geometric and temporal levels of control. Geometric properties (path and posture) are defined in terms of geodesic paths with respect to the kinetic energy metric in the Riemannian configuration space. Accordingly, a geodesic path can be generated with less muscular effort than on any other, nongeodesic path, because the sum of all configuration-speed-dependent torques vanishes. The temporal properties of the movement (speed) are determined in task space by minimizing the squared jerk along the selected end-effector path. The integration of both planning levels into a single spatiotemporal representation simplifies the control of arm dynamics along geodesic paths and results in movements with near minimal torque change and minimal peak value of kinetic energy. Thus, the application of Riemannian geometry allows for a reconciliation of computational models previously proposed for the description of arm movements. We suggest that geodesics are an emergent property of the motor system through the exploration of dynamical space. Our data validated the predictions for joint trajectories, hand paths, final postures, speed profiles, and driving torques.  
  Address Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel. armin.biess@weizmann.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18045899 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 35  
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Author (up) Liebermann, D.G.; Biess, A.; Friedman, J.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flash, T. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Intrinsic joint kinematic planning. I: reassessing the Listing's law constraint in the control of three-dimensional arm movements Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 171 Issue 2 Pages 139-154  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; *Arm; Biomechanics; Eye Movements/*physiology; Humans; Joints/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; *Musculoskeletal System; Orientation/*physiology; Posture  
  Abstract This study tested the validity of the assumption that intrinsic kinematic constraints, such as Listing's law, can account for the geometric features of three-dimensional arm movements. In principle, if the arm joints follow a Listing's constraint, the hand paths may be predicted. Four individuals performed 'extended arm', 'radial', 'frontal plane', and 'random mixed' movements to visual targets to test Listing's law assumption. Three-dimensional rotation vectors of the upper arm and forearm were calculated from three-dimensional marker data. Data fitting techniques were used to test Donders' and Listing's laws. The coefficient values obtained from fitting rotation vectors to the surfaces described by a second-order equation were analyzed. The results showed that the coefficients that represent curvature and twist of the surfaces were often not significantly different from zero, particularly not during randomly mixed and extended arm movements. These coefficients for forearm rotations were larger compared to those for the upper arm segment rotations. The mean thickness of the rotation surfaces ranged between approximately 1.7 degrees and 4.7 degrees for the rotation vectors of the upper arm segment and approximately 2.6 degrees and 7.5 degrees for those of the forearm. During frontal plane movements, forearm rotations showed large twist scores while upper arm segment rotations showed large curvatures, although the thickness of the surfaces remained low. The curvatures, but not the thicknesses of the surfaces, were larger for large versus small amplitude radial movements. In conclusion, when examining the surfaces obtained for the different movement types, the rotation vectors may lie within manifolds that are anywhere between curved or twisted manifolds. However, a two-dimensional thick surface may roughly represent a global arm constraint. Our findings suggest that Listing's law is implemented for some types of arm movement, such as pointing to targets with the extended arm and during radial reaching movements.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16341526 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 18  
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Author (up) Liebermann, D.G.; Hoffman, J.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Timing of preparatory landing responses as a function of availability of optic flow information Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology Abbreviated Journal J Electromyogr Kinesiol  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 120-130  
  Keywords Adult; Cues; Electromyography; Humans; Male; Movement/physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Posture/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Vision, Ocular/*physiology  
  Abstract This study investigated temporal patterns of EMG activity during self-initiated falls with different optic flow information ('gaze directions'). Onsets of EMG during the flight phase were monitored from five experienced volunteers that completed 72 landings in three gaze directions (downward, mid-range and horizontal) and six heights of fall (10-130 cm). EMG recordings were obtained from the right gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles, and used to determine the latency of onset (L(o)) and the perceived time to contact (T(c)). Impacts at touchdown were also monitored using as estimates the major peak of the vertical ground reaction forces (F(max)) normalized to body mass, time to peak (T(max)), peak impulse (I(norm)) normalized to momentum, and rate of change of force (dF(max)/dt). Results showed that L(o) was longer as heights of fall increased, but remained within a narrow time-window at >50 cm landings. No significant differences in L(o) were observed when gaze direction was changed. The relationship between T(c) and flight time followed a linear trend regardless of gaze direction. Gaze direction did not significantly affect the landing impacts. In conclusion, availability of optic flow during landing does not play a major role in triggering the preparatory muscle actions in self-initiated falls. Once a structured landing plan has been acquired, the relevant muscles respond relative to the start of the fall.  
  Address Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, University of Tel Aviv, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1050-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15642660 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 39  
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Author (up) Liebermann, D.G.; Levin, M.F.; McIntyre, J.; Weiss, P.L.; Berman, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Arm path fragmentation and spatiotemporal features of hand reaching in healthy subjects and stroke patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Abbreviated Journal Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc  
  Volume 2010 Issue Pages 5242-5245  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Analysis of Variance; Arm/*physiology; Biomechanics/physiology; Female; Hand/*physiology; *Health; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Movement/*physiology; Posture/physiology; Principal Component Analysis; Stroke/*physiopathology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Arm motion in healthy humans is characterized by smooth and relatively short paths. The current study focused on 3D reaching in stroke patients. Sixteen right-hemiparetic stroke patients and 8 healthy adults performed 42 reaching movements towards 3 visual targets located at an extended arm distance. Performance was assessed in terms of spatial and temporal features of the movement; i.e., hand path, arm posture and smoothness. Differences between groups and within subjects were hypothesized for spatial and temporal aspects of reaching under the assumption that both are independent. As expected, upper limb motion of patients was characterized by longer and jerkier hand paths and slower speeds. Assessment of the number of sub-movements within each movement did not clearly discriminate between groups. Principal component analyses revealed specific clusters of either spatial or temporal measures, which accounted for a large proportion of the variance in patients but not in healthy controls. These findings support the notion of a separation between spatial and temporal features of movement. Stroke patients may fail to integrate the two aspects when executing reaching movements towards visual targets.  
  Address Physical Therapy Dept., Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Israel. dlieberm@post.tau.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1557-170X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21096047 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 30  
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