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Author Thorpe, A.; Friedman, J.; Evans, S.; Nesbitt, K.; Eidels, A. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Mouse Movement Trajectories as an Indicator of Cognitive Workload Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction  
  Volume (down) 38 Issue 15 Pages 1464-1479  
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  Abstract Assessing the cognitive impact of user interfaces is a shared focus of human-computer interaction researchers and cognitive scientists. Methods of cognitive assessment based on data derived from the system itself, rather than external apparatus, have the potential to be applied in a range of scenarios. The current study applied methods of analyzing kinematics to mouse movements in a computer-based task, alongside the detection response task, a standard workload measure. Sixty-five participants completed a task in which stationary stimuli were tar;geted using a mouse, with a within-subjects factor of task workload based on the number of targets to be hovered over with the mouse (one/two), and a between-subjects factor based on whether both targets (exhaustive) or just one target (minimum-time) needed to be hovered over to complete a trial when two targets were presented. Mouse movement onset times were slower and mouse movement trajectories exhibited more submovements when two targets were presented, than when one target was presented. Responses to the detection response task were also slower in this condition, indicating higher cognitive workload. However, these differences were only found for participants in the exhaustive condition, suggesting those in the minimum-time condition were not affected by the presence of the second target. Mouse movement trajectory results agreed with other measures of workload and task performance. Our findings suggest this analysis can be applied to workload assessments in real-world scenarios.  
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  ISSN 1044-7318 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 117  
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Author Steinhart, S.; Weiss, P.L.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Proximal and distal movement patterns during a graphomotor task in typically developing children and children with handwriting problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation Abbreviated Journal J Neuroeng Rehabil  
  Volume (down) 18 Issue 1 Pages 178  
  Keywords Arm; Biomechanical Phenomena; Child; *Handwriting; Humans; Motor Skills; *Movement; Upper Extremity; Distal joints; Handwriting; Motor control; Movement analysis; Proximal; Stability  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Therapists specializing in handwriting difficulties in children often address motor problems including both proximal and distal movements in the upper extremity. Kinematic measures can be used to investigate various aspects of handwriting. This study examined differences in movement patterns in proximal and distal joints of the upper extremity during graphomotor tasks between typically developing children with and without handwriting problems. Additionally, it explored relationships between movement patterns, speed, and legibility of writing. METHODS: Forty-one children, aged 7-11 years, were assessed with the Aleph Aleph Ktav Yad Hebrew Handwriting assessment and the Beery Test of Visual Motor Integration and, based on their scores, were divided into a research group (with handwriting difficulties) and a control group (without handwriting difficulties). Upper extremity joint movement patterns were analyzed with a motion capture system. Differences in the quality of shapes traced and copied on a graphics tablet positioned horizontally and vertically were compared. Between-group differences and relationships with speed and legibility were analyzed. RESULTS: In both groups, there was greater movement in the distal compared to the proximal joints, greater movement when performing the task in a horizontal compared to a vertical plane, and greater movement when tracing than copying. Joint movements in the arm executed scaled-down versions of the shapes being drawn. While the amount of joint displacement was similar between groups, children in the research group showed greater dissimilarity between the drawn shape and the shape produced by the proximal joints. Finally, the drawing measure on the tablet was a significant predictor of legibility, speed of writing, visual motor integration and motor coordination, whereas the dissimilarity measure of joint movement was a significant predictor of speed of writing and motor coordination. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for the role of the distal upper extremity joints in the writing process and some guidance to assist clinicians in devising treatment strategies for movement-related handwriting problems. While we observed differences in proximal joint movements between the children with and without handwriting difficulties, the extent to which they are responsible for the differences in drawing quality remains to be determined. Further studies should use a similar methodology to examine additional tasks such as drawing shapes of varying sizes.  
  Address Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. jason@tau.ac.il  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1743-0003 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:34930334; PMCID:PMC8690895 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 118  
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Author Mimouni-Bloch, A.; Shaklai, S.; Levin, M.; Ingber, M.; Karolitsky, T.; Grunbaum, S.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Developmental and acquired brain injury have opposite effects on finger coordination in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Hum. Neurosci.  
  Volume (down) 17 Issue Pages 1083304  
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  ISSN 1662-5161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 119  
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Author Swissa, Y.; Hacohen, S.; Friedman, J.; Frenkel-Toledo, S. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Sensorimotor performance after high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary somatosensory or motor cortices in men versus women Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume (down) 12 Issue Pages 11117  
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  Abstract The primary somatosensory (S1) cortex is a central structure in motor performance. However, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) research aimed at improving motor performance usually targets the primary motor cortex (M1). Recently, sex was found to mediate tDCS response. Thus, we investigated whether tDCS with an anodal electrode placed over S1 improves motor performance and sensation perception in men versus women. Forty-five participants randomly received 15-min high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) at 1 mA to S1, M1, or sham stimulation. Reaching performance was tested before and immediately following stimulation. Two-point orientation discrimination (TPOD) of fingers and proprioception of a reaching movement were also tested. Although motor performance did not differ between groups, reaching reaction time improved in the M1 group men. Reaching movement time and endpoint error improved in women and men, respectively. Correct trials percentage for TPOD task was higher in the S1 compared to the M1 group in the posttest and improved only in the S1 group. Reaching movement time for the proprioception task improved, overall, and endpoint error did not change. Despite the reciprocal connections between S1 and M1, effects of active tDCS over S1 and M1 may specifically influence sensation perception and motor performance, respectively. Also, sex may mediate effects of HD-tDCS on motor performance.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 114  
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Author Friedman, J.; Amiaz, A.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title The online and offline effects of changing movement timing variability during training on a finger-opposition task Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume (down) 12 Issue 1 Pages 13319  
  Keywords Fingers; Humans; *Learning; *Motor Skills; Movement; Psychomotor Performance; Upper Extremity  
  Abstract In motor learning tasks, there is mixed evidence for whether increased task-relevant variability in early learning stages leads to improved outcomes. One problem is that there may be a connection between skill level and motor variability, such that participants who initially have more variability may also perform worse on the task, so will have more room to improve. To avoid this confound, we experimentally manipulated the amount of movement timing variability (MTV) during training to test whether it improves performance. Based on previous studies showing that most of the improvement in finger-opposition tasks comes from optimizing the relative onset time of the finger movements, we used auditory cues (beeps) to guide the onset times of sequential movements during a training session, and then assessed motor performance after the intervention. Participants were assigned to three groups that either: (a) followed a prescribed random rhythm for their finger touches (Variable MTV), (b) followed a fixed rhythm (Fixed control MTV), or (c) produced the entire sequence following a single beep (Unsupervised control MTV). While the intervention was successful in increasing MTV during training for the Variable group, it did not lead to improved outcomes post-training compared to either control group, and the use of fixed timing led to significantly worse performance compared to the Unsupervised control group. These results suggest that manipulating MTV through auditory cues does not produce greater learning than unconstrained training in motor sequence tasks.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:35922460; PMCID:PMC9349301 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 115  
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