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Author (up) Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Bentin, S.; Perry, A.; Liebermann, D.G.; Soroker, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dynamics of the EEG Power in the Frequency and Spatial Domains During Observation and Execution of Manual Movements Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1509 Issue Pages 43-57  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mu suppression is the attenuation of EEG power in the alpha frequency range (8-12Hz) while executing or observing a motor action. Whereas typically observed at central scalp sites, there are diverging reports about the extent of the attenuation over the cortical mantle, its exact frequency range and the specificity of this phenomenon. We investigated the modulation of EEG oscillations in frequency-bands from 4 to 12Hz at frontal, central, parietal and occipital sites during the execution of manual movements and during observation of similar actions from allocentric (i.e., facing the actor) and egocentric (i.e., seeing the actor from behind) viewpoints. Suppression was determined relative to observation of a non-biological movement. Action observation elicited greater suppression in the lower (8-10Hz) compared to the higher mu range (10-12Hz), and greater suppression in the entire 4-12Hz range at frontal and central sites compared to parietal and occipital sites. In addition, suppression tended to be greater during observation of a motor action from allocentric compared to egocentric viewpoints. During execution of movement, suppression of the EEG occurred primarily in the higher alpha range and was absent at occipital sites. In the theta range (4-8Hz), the EEG amplitude was suppressed during action observation and execution. The results suggest a functional distinction between modulation of mu and alpha rhythms, and between the higher and lower ranges of the mu rhythms. The activity of the presumed human mirror neuron system seems primarily evident in the lower mu range and in the theta range.  
  Address Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, Loewenstein Hospital, Raanana, Israel. Electronic address: silvi197@bezeqint.net  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-8993 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23500633 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 68  
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Author (up) Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Yamanaka, J.; Friedman, J.; Feldman, A.G.; Levin, M.F. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Anticipatory grip force; Referent control; Stroke  
  Abstract To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group. Differences in the patterns of anticipatory GF increases before the arm movement onset between groups occurred during fast extension arm movement only. In the stroke group, longer delays between the onset of GF change and elbow motion were related to clinical upper limb deficits. Simulations showed that GFs could emerge from the difference between the actual and the referent hand aperture (Ra) specified by the CNS. Similarly, arm movement could result from changes in the referent elbow position (Re) and could be affected by the co-activation (C) command. A subgroup of stroke subjects, who increased GF before arm movement, could specify different patterns of the referent variables while reproducing the healthy typical pattern of GF-arm coordination. Stroke subjects, who increased GF after arm movement onset, also used different referent strategies than controls. Thus, altered anticipatory GF behavior in stroke subjects may be explained by deficits in referent control.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30976821 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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Author (up) Friedman, Jason; Flash, Tamar pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Trajectory of the index finger during grasping Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 196 Issue 4 Pages 497-509  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The trajectory of the index finger during grasping movements was compared to the trajectories predicted by three optimization-based models. The three models consisted of minimizing the integral of the weighted squared joint derivatives along the path (inertia-like cost), minimizing torque change, and minimizing angular jerk. Of the three models, it was observed that the path of the fingertip and the joint trajectories, were best described by the minimum angular jerk model. This model, which does not take into account the dynamics of the finger, performed equally well when the inertia of the finger was altered by adding a 20 g weight to the medial phalange. Thus, for the finger, it appears that trajectories are planned based primarily on kinematic considerations at a joint level.  
  Address Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, write.to.jason@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19521692 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 17  
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Author (up) Friedman, Jason; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Prehension synergies: a study of digit force adjustments to the continuously varied load force exerted on a partially constrained hand-held object Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 197 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords  
  Abstract We examined how the digit forces adjust when a load force acting on a hand-held object continuously varies. The subjects were required to hold the handle still while a linearly increasing and then decreasing force was applied to the handle. The handle was constrained, such that it could only move up and down, and rotate about a horizontal axis. In addition, the moment arm of the thumb tangential force was 1.5 times the moment arm of the virtual finger (VF, an imagined finger with the mechanical action equal to that of the four fingers) force. Unlike the situation when there are equal moment arms, the experimental setup forced the subjects to choose between (a) sharing equally the increase in load force between the thumb and VF but generating a moment of tangential force, which had to be compensated by negatively co-varying the moment due to normal forces, or (b) sharing unequally the load force increase between the thumb and VF but preventing generation of a moment of tangential forces. We found that different subjects tended to use one of these two strategies. These findings suggest that the selection by the CNS of prehension synergies at the VF-thumb level with respect to the moment of force is non-obligatory and reflects individual subject preferences. This unequal sharing of the load by the tangential forces, in contrast to the previously observed equal sharing, suggests that the invariant feature of prehension may be a correlated increase in tangential forces rather than an equal increase.  
  Address Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, 39 Recreation Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA, jason.friedman@psu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19554319 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 16  
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Author (up) Friedman, Jason; SKM, Varadhan; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title The sources of two components of variance: an example of multifinger cyclic force production tasks at different frequencies Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 196 Issue 2 Pages 263-277  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In a multifinger cyclic force production task, the finger force variance measured across trials can be decomposed into two components, one that affects the combined force output (“bad variance”) and one that does not (“good variance”). Previous studies have found similar time patterns of “bad variance” and force rate leading to an approximately linear relationship between them. Based on this finding and a recently developed model of multifinger force production, we expected the “bad variance” during cyclic force production to increase monotonically with the rate of force change, both within a cycle and across trials at different frequencies. Alternatively, “bad variance” could show a dependence on task frequency, not on actual force derivative values. Healthy subjects were required to produce cyclic force patterns to prescribed targets by pressing on unidimensional force sensors, at a frequency set by a metronome. The task was performed with only the index finger, and with all four fingers. In the task with all four fingers, the “good variance” increased approximately linearly with an increase in the force magnitude. The “bad variance” showed within-a-cycle modulation similar to that of the force rate. However, an increase in the frequency did not lead to an increase in the “bad variance” that could be expected based on the natural relationships between action frequency and the rate of force change modulation. The results have been interpreted in the framework of an earlier model of multifinger force production where “bad variance” is a result of variance of the timing parameter. The unexpected lack of modulation of the “bad variance” with frequency suggests a drop in variance of the timing parameter with increased frequency. This mechanism may serve to maintain a constant acceptable level of variance under different conditions.  
  Address Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1432-1106 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19468721 Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 15  
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