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Author Friedman, J.; Korman, M. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Offline Optimization of the Relative Timing of Movements in a Sequence Is Blocked by Retroactive Behavioral Interference Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Hum. Neurosci.  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 623  
  Keywords learning; interference; consolidation; finger movements; kinematics  
  Abstract Acquisition of motor skills often involves the concatenation of single movements into sequences. Along the course of learning, sequential performance becomes progressively faster and smoother, presumably by optimization of both motor planning and motor execution. Following its encoding during training, “how-to” memory undergoes consolidation, reflecting transformations in performance and its neurobiological underpinnings over time. This offline post-training memory process is characterized by two phenomena: reduced sensitivity to interference and the emergence of delayed, typically overnight, gains in performance. Here, using a training protocol that effectively induces motor sequence memory consolidation, we tested temporal and kinematic parameters of performance within (online) and between (offline) sessions, and their sensitivity to retroactive interference. One group learned a given finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), and showed robust delayed (consolidation) gains in the number of correct sequences performed at 24 h. A second group learned an additional (interference) FOS shortly after the first and did not show delayed gains. Reduction of touch times and inter-movement intervals significantly contributed to the overall offline improvement of performance overnight. However, only the offline inter-movement interval shortening was selectively blocked by the interference experience. Velocity and amplitude, comprising movement time, also significantly changed across the consolidation period but were interference-insensitive. Moreover, they paradoxically canceled out each other. Current results suggest that shifts in the representation of the trained sequence are subserved by multiple processes: from distinct changes in kinematic characteristics of individual finger movements to high-level, temporal reorganization of the movements as a unit. Each of these processes has a distinct time course and a specific susceptibility to retroactive interference. This multiple-component view may bridge the gap in understanding the link between the behavioral changes, which define online and offline learning, and the biological mechanisms that support those changes.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1662-5161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 83  
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Author Dempsey-Jones, H.; Wesselink, D.B.; Friedman, J.; Makin, T.R. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Organized Toe Maps in Extreme Foot Users Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Cell Reports Abbreviated Journal Cell Reports  
  Volume 28 Issue 11 Pages 2748-2756.e4  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Although the fine-grained features of topographic maps in the somatosensory cortex can be shaped by everyday experience, it is unknown whether behavior can support the expression of somatotopic maps where they do not typically occur. Unlike the fingers, represented in all primates, individuated toe maps have only been found in non-human primates. Using 1-mm resolution fMRI, we identify organized toe maps in two individuals born without either upper limb who use their feet to substitute missing hand function and even support their profession as foot artists. We demonstrate that the ordering and structure of the artists’ toe representation mimics typical hand representation. We further reveal “hand-like” features of activity patterns, not only in the foot area but also similarly in the missing hand area. We suggest humans may have an innate capacity for forming additional topographic maps that can be expressed with appropriate experience.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-1247 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.027 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 99  
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Author Latash, M.L., Friedman, J., Kim, S.W., Feldman, A.G., Zatsiorsky, V.M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title (up) Prehension Synergies and Control with Referent Hand Configurations Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 202 Issue 1 Pages 213-229  
  Keywords  
  Abstract We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb-virtual finger level (virtual finger is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb-virtual finger level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb-virtual finger level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Penn State @ write.to.jason @ Serial 19  
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Author Salzer, Y.; Friedman, J. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Reaching trajectories unravel modality-dependent temporal dynamics of the automatic process in the Simon task: a model-based approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Psychological Research Abbreviated Journal Psychol Res  
  Volume 84 Issue 6 Pages 1700-1713  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The Simon effect represents a phenomenon in which the location of the stimuli affects the speed and accuracy of the response, despite being irrelevant for the task demands. This is believed to be due to an automatic activation of a response corresponding to the location of the stimuli, which conflicts with the controlled decision process based on relevant stimuli features. Previously, differences in the nature of the Simon effect (i.e., the pattern of change of the effect across the distribution of response times) between visual and somatosensory stimuli were reported. We hypothesize that the temporal dynamics of visual and somatosensory automatic and controlled processes vary, thus driving the reported behavioral differences. While most studies have used response times to study the underlying mechanisms involved, in this study we had participants reach out to touch the targets and recorded their arm movements using a motion capture system. Importantly, the participants started their movements before a final decision was made. In this way, we could analyze the movements to gain insights into the competition between the automatic and controlled processes. We used this technique to describe the results in terms of a model assuming automatic activation due to location-based evidence, followed by inhibition. We found that for the somatosensory Simon effect, the decay of the automatic process is significantly slower than for the visual Simon effect, suggesting quantitative differences in this automatic process between the visual and somatosensory modalities.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0340-0727 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30980236 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author Frenkel-Toledo, S.; Yamanaka, J.; Friedman, J.; Feldman, A.G.; Levin, M.F. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Experimental Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Brain Res  
  Volume 237 Issue 7 Pages 1655-1672  
  Keywords Anticipatory grip force; Referent control; Stroke  
  Abstract To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group. Differences in the patterns of anticipatory GF increases before the arm movement onset between groups occurred during fast extension arm movement only. In the stroke group, longer delays between the onset of GF change and elbow motion were related to clinical upper limb deficits. Simulations showed that GFs could emerge from the difference between the actual and the referent hand aperture (Ra) specified by the CNS. Similarly, arm movement could result from changes in the referent elbow position (Re) and could be affected by the co-activation (C) command. A subgroup of stroke subjects, who increased GF before arm movement, could specify different patterns of the referent variables while reproducing the healthy typical pattern of GF-arm coordination. Stroke subjects, who increased GF after arm movement onset, also used different referent strategies than controls. Thus, altered anticipatory GF behavior in stroke subjects may be explained by deficits in referent control.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4819 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30976821 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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